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The Miseducation of the American People

2020.09.08 17:07 intellectualgulf The Miseducation of the American People

This is a theory that I will be working on until I figure out if it is accurate or not. Y'know, how the scientific process is supposed to be applied.
The theory is this: The american people have been purposefully miseducated for generations and the bizarre backwards behavior we see today is a symptom of this miseducation.
Whether or not the GOP is mainly responsible, whether this miseducation was politically aligned / inspired seems like a very important question given Nixon's presidency. Nixon is however just a symptom of a disease, and that disease is misinformation. The miseducation of the American people has been occurring for at least 100 years, but most likely has been ongoing since the founding of the country. Unfortunately freedom of speech protects liars, but that is the price we pay for democracy.
Misinformation is a human disease, and is directly responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of American citizens in 2020 alone. Trump appointed Jared Kushner, an uneducated unqualified man, to lead a Covid Task force AND Jared Kushner showed why being uneducated is dangerous, since he decided Covid would magically hurt democrats more than republicans.
I appear to be picking on Trump, but my theory is that conservatives of every color are to blame for this miseducation. It may be unfair to lay the blame entirely at the feet of conservative political parties, but we still can't have rational public debates about social policy without one of the miseducated screaming about communism.
The average american has no idea what socialism is and only vaguely understands it to be a dangerous / bad system of governance that opposing superpowers have historically claimed to follow. https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2019/10/07/in-their-own-words-behind-americans-views-of-socialism-and-capitalism/
The issue with this miseducation is it prevents reasonable logical debate. Of course any purely socialist society would fail, we are not a cooperative species. Any "true" form of government will fail when applied to humans because we are not rational or logical animals. We will inevitably smear everything in sight with feces and claim we have improved the world.
Miseducation has led to the average american not understanding how governments function at a fundamental level. A government is a group of people who agree to a set of rules that direct acceptable or unacceptable behavior, who organize around these rules, and who contribute resources to the group fund to support the enforcement of those rules. Every government is socialist since the definition of socialism is group ownership, and democratic governments are group owned. All guaranteed services provided by a government are group owned, and anyone who claims the government should not provide guaranteed services should leave since that is exactly what our founding fathers wanted it to be.
I'll repeat that last bit for clarity, the founding fathers intentionally created a group owned government to provide guaranteed services which include the postal service. If you consider yourself an "American" and believe that privatizing government services is a good idea, then you do not understand your government. This is reasonable given that many people were taught complete falsehoods before the internet came along, and many more falsehoods have been propagated by charlatans via the internet.
The only reason we can even tell that a massive amount of miseducation occurred in the United States is because so many of those people are very loud. The internet acts as a permanent record, and despite active revisionism / ongoing miseducation it still provides a clear view of the miseducation.
Each administration that chooses to use misinformation as a political weapon / tool ultimately damages the United States of America as they progressively weaken the citizens faith in truth. The american people at this point in time continue to act illogically despite access to the entirety of human knowledge at their fingertips. This is because the average American has been taught that Science and truth are not the same, and that "science" cannot be trusted to protect their interests. It does not matter that "their interests" are given to them by politicians who have shown an inability to think rationally or scientifically, since this is what they have been taught to accept.
This is yet another symptom of the disease, as people who otherwise are not mentally deficient make completely irrational or illogical choices / behaviors, such as continuing to elect corrupt and incompetent leaders.
The claims by Trump and other "modern" conservatives that the United States is or ever was intended to be a Christian nation is common. It really shouldn't be commonly held or believed since it is patently false, but it is another symptom of the disease of misinformation which is propagated in the United States through miseducation.
Data Sources
Statistics in the U.S. Department of Education: Highlights from the Past 120 Years
https://nces.ed.gov/pubs93/93442.pdf
US Department of Education website
https://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html
History
The original Department of Education was created in 1867 to collect information on schools and teaching that would help the States establish effective school systems. While the agency's name and location within the Executive Branch have changed over the past 130 years, this early emphasis on getting information on what works in education to teachers and education policymakers continues down to the present day.
The passage of the Second Morrill Act in 1890 gave the then-named Office of Education responsibility for administering support for the original system of land-grant colleges and universities. Vocational education became the next major area of Federal aid to schools, with the 1917 Smith-Hughes Act and the 1946 George-Barden Act focusing on agricultural, industrial, and home economics training for high school students.
World War II led to a significant expansion of Federal support for education. The Lanham Act in 1941 and the Impact Aid laws of 1950 eased the burden on communities affected by the presence of military and other Federal installations by making payments to school districts. And in 1944, the "GI Bill" authorized postsecondary education assistance that would ultimately send nearly 8 million World War II veterans to college.
The Cold War stimulated the first example of comprehensive Federal education legislation, when in 1958 Congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) in response to the Soviet launch of Sputnik. To help ensure that highly trained individuals would be available to help America compete with the Soviet Union in scientific and technical fields, the NDEA included support for loans to college students, the improvement of science, mathematics, and foreign language instruction in elementary and secondary schools, graduate fellowships, foreign language and area studies, and vocational-technical training.
The anti-poverty and civil rights laws of the 1960s and 1970s brought about a dramatic emergence of the Department's equal access mission. The passage of laws such as Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which prohibited discrimination based on race, sex, and disability, respectively made civil rights enforcement a fundamental and long-lasting focus of the Department of Education. In 1965, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act launched a comprehensive set of programs, including the Title I program of Federal aid to disadvantaged children to address the problems of poor urban and rural areas. And in that same year, the Higher Education Act authorized assistance for postsecondary education, including financial aid programs for needy college students.
In 1980, Congress established the Department of Education as a Cabinet level agency. Today, ED operates programs that touch on every area and level of education. The Department's elementary and secondary programs annually serve nearly 18,200 school districts and over 50 million students attending roughly 98,000 public schools and 32,000 private schools. Department programs also provide grant, loan, and work-study assistance to more than 12 million postsecondary students.
When formulating this theory I was focused on education in the 1950s and later, but I am revising this theory as I read more. I think the best way to identify the miseducation will be to find writings that survived the shifts in belief. To suggest to one of Jefferson's contemporaries that he wanted religion involved with the United States government would have gotten you laughed out of the room. Jefferson was not above using the law to support his personal beliefs, but we have his letters with Madison where they congratulate one another on keeping religion out of the government [see comments].
I bring this up as it is a MAJOR point for conservatives despite being clearly historically wrong.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservatism_in_the_United_States#:~:text=Conservatism%20in%20the%20United%20States%20is%20a%20political%20and%20social,%2Dcommunism%2C%20pro%2Dindividualism%2C
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservatism_in_the_United_States#:~:text=Conservatism%20in%20the%20United%20States%20is%20a%20political%20and%20social,%2Dcommunism%2C%20pro%2Dindividualism%2C
Anyone who ascribes to believes in made up history is one of the miseducated.
20200915 - "The white man's burden"
In February 1899, British novelist and poet Rudyard Kipling wrote a poem entitled “The White Man’s Burden: The United States and The Philippine Islands.”
I had hoped I would need to search further than this to find my evidence, as if all the evidence is laying about like this it is a wonder no one else stumbled upon it before.
"The White Man's Burden" had a clear historical impact, and yet most people alive now would refuse to believe that their great great grandparent, great grandparent, or grandparent was assuredly raised with (and most likely promoted) Racist views.
This poem influenced the future) US President Theodore Roosevelt and Global Policy as a result: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5478/
We see contemporary refutations by famous figures such as Mark Twain, that were clearly ignored in favor of the "White Man" which in the USA was quite literal. "Predestination" was the idea that White Christians were beloved by God, and that God had made the world for White Men to rule".
This was such a common theme in those days that it was used to literally steal land from the natives. Really good evidence of how effective Christianity is as a moral spine to humanity in my thinking.
Just look at President Jackson's Message to Congress "On Indian Removal", December 6, 1830;
https://www.nps.gov/museum/tmc/MANZ/handouts/Andrew_Jackson_Annual_Message.pdf
We must admit that not just some, but most of our forefather's were selfish and racist people who had been indoctrinated by their conservative peers and teachers.
The reason I bring this poem up specifically is I found it in a Biology textbook. Which Biology textbook? Why only one of the most famous textbooks in history that no one remembers,:
A Civic Biology: Presented in Problems (usually referred to as just Civic Biology) was a biology textbook written by George William Hunter, published in 1914
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39969/39969-h/39969-h.htm
Excerpt from The Economic Value of Trees. Protection and Regulation of Water Supply. : "It was such a strange, tremendous story, that of the Greek Poseidonia, later the Roman Pæstum. Long ago those adventuring mariners from Greece had seized the fertile plain, which at that time was covered with forests of great oak and watered by two clear and shining rivers. They drove the Italian natives back into the distant hills, for the white man's burden even then included the taking of all the desirable things that were being wasted by incompetent natives, and they brought over colonists—whom the philosophers and moralists at home maligned, no doubt, in the same pleasant fashion of our own day. And the colonists cut down the oaks, and plowed the land, and built cities, and made harbors, and finally dusted their busy hands and busy souls of the grime of labor and wrought splendid temples in honor of the benign gods who had given them the possessions of the Italians and filled them with power and fatness. "
Now one instance doesn't make a pattern, but that is clearly not a scientific phrase. Why is this Biology textbook, which was used to force schools to teach science, reinforcing a view that was known at the time to be wrong? Not only was this view known to be wrong, it had been known for at least 50 years.
At this point we can just accept that Christianity was only used as a way to excuse horrendous treatment of "savages", and that the people alive at the time knew this was true. The supporters of predestination at the time most likely were as vehement in their correctness as the neo-nazis of now.
So what is the picture I am painting? Why is this not in chronological order?
I am going to show you that not only is there a constant theme of "denying reality" among conservatives in the United States, but that it was purposeful refutation of correct information (truth).
Andrew Jackson did not consider the native population as human:
"And is it supposed that the wandering savage has a stronger attachment to his home than the settled, civilized Christian? Is it more afflicting to him to leave the graves of his fathers than it is to our brothers and children? Rightly considered, the policy of the General Government toward the red man is not only liberal, but generous. He is unwilling to submit to the laws of the States and mingle with their population. To save him from this alternative, or perhaps utter annihilation, the General Government kindly offers him a new home, and proposes to pay the whole expense of his removal and settlement."
I can say Jackson didn't consider "the red man" as human, because despite this claim that the "red man" would be relocated and all costs covered Jackson would end up authorizing the murder of many natives during his presidency. Just look at how Jackson promoted an incorrect view of the Native American people being "wandering savages" with no connection to the land.
"Whatabout" arguments bring up questions of "ownership", inheritance of land among Native American Tribes, and wars among the Tribes just before the "settling" of the Americas. My counter to this is the same as always, according to your logic if I want your house I just need to prove you haven't owned it "very long".
This argument is at its core insisting that the ownership of a landmass depends on how recently the government on that landmass changed leadership. The fact is that the native American people had been living on the continent without european intervention for at least 1,000 years:
Just for example he Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee
This means that the Cherokee have a stronger claim to England than the English according to the "recent ownership theory", since the people the English descended from didn't arrive in England until after 400 CE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_settlement_of_Britain
Honestly if you or anyone you know believes the ridiculously common conservative argument, please point out to them that based on the concept of ownership being based on time spent in a region, the Native American people owned half the world before the English stood up their bastion of failing Rome in the United Kingdom. Not only that, but the Native American people had a rich history that quite literally was all but destroyed between the 16th and 18th centuries.
Jesus H Christ, if you want to see even more proof that we have simply trained ourselves to be idiotic, look at this History Channel Page that supposedly tells the timeline of the Native American People: https://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/native-american-timeline
It starts in 1492! That is not a history of the native american people, that is a history of European interaction with the Native American People's. This is a perfect example of how our common knowledge and supposed history is just conservative garbage.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Native_Americans_in_the_United_States
Looking at the actual Wikipedia page (look out for conservative Christian revisionism), we see that the people who populated the American continents lived there for millenia. "Western Christian Civilization" wasn't even a shitstain in homo sapiens diaper when the American continents were fully settled and replete with grand empires.
Not only did Jackson purposefully mis-inform the American people about the selfishness and evil of the "Indian Removal Act", but he used similar misinformation tactics to disguise other political agendas:
" Mexico, having for six years carried on against Texas a marauding war only, and that upon the most savage principles, inconsistant with all principles of civilised warfare, and against which all civilised nations which have acknowledged the Independence of Texas ought to unite, and by peaceful means, if it could, put it down, and if this could not be obtained peaceably, then all civillised and christian powers are bound to unite upon christian principle to put an end to this savage and inhuman war. The United States having been the first nation that acknowledged Texian Independence, are we not bound to be the first to boldly step forward to put an end to this savage maurading war. I think so. Texas harassed, and her means of war limitted presents herself to the united states to be annexed to, and protected by the United States. There being no embodied army marching against Texas for reconquest, great Britain trying to obtain the Liberation of the slaves in Texas for the avowed purpose of coercing the south and west into this measure by destroying the vallue of this property and opening a way for our slaves to run away to Texas, is [it] not time for the south and west to take the alarm, and as Texas has presented herself for voluntary annexation, which at once shuts the door against this impending evil, and secures Neworleans in case of a war with England, can it be, could it be, that any one could seriously suppose that the whole south and west would not unite upon this important subject, and with one voice cry out annexation. "
"I am very feeble, but excited by the subject, mortified at Mr. V.B. letter and Col. Bentons, for their is no evidence of ever the time being more propitious than the present, the necessitous situation of Texas, the prospects of the encouragement posponement will give to Mexico, with the secrete aid of great Britain and the consequences, makes my tears flow with regret. Texas may feel herself insulted and neglected by the refusal of the U. States and make a treaty with great Britain ruinous to the south west and to the safety of the Union, when we will have to fight both great Britain and mexico—on such an event what curses must fall upon all who refused to receive Texas."
It's almost like Andrew Jackson was a Racist, who while opposed / refuted by some of his contemporaries, the average American clearly supported Predestination.
It is no wonder that with this amount misinformation use already present by the 7th President we see a President today who does nothing but lie. Since conservatives value Opinion over Truth we can no longer trust anything that they claim, and we shouldn't have been letting these views infect out people for this long to begin with.

Special Interest Groups Damaged our Government:

This should be a perfectly reasonable debate with no partisanship or issues of religion / emotion (/s).
This is going to be a shit show, just be prepared.
Academics have almost universally responded poorly to this hypothesis, that the American People have been Miseducated for Generations.
It is quite possible that the misinformation campaigns which turned our nation into an "Idiocracy" were not exclusive to education centers.
Searching through the NY Times you can find many examples of Christian special interest groups attacking politicians for failing to align with their goals:
1832 Wig Paper lauding the destruction of Irish Culture- Constitutional Whig. [volume], September 28, 1824
1841 Indiana State sentinel. [volume], October 19, 1841: 1841 anti-irish sentiment

1840 - Mr. Van Buren has shown he is in favor of Free Negroes and Slaves to swear in Court against WHITE MEN! (emphasis theirs) The Hawk-eye and Iowa patriot., September 10, 1840
1842 article noting the South's prediliction for lynching, and arguing that good christians are not racist
1856 - christian editor taken to court for printing abolitionist sentiments in Va
1907 -white people are great even when they oppress their dark skinned brothers
1919 - princeton journal reference to "Irish need not apply". If you are of Irish heritage, your ancestors were called "white The Princeton union. [volume], December 04, 1919, Page 4
1949 - A congressman from Ohio tells other Congressmen he had never seen any segregation: https://history.house.gov/People/Detail/15130?ret=True
2005 - The United States is still fighting idiots pushing their religion in tax funded schools: https://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/20/science/sciencespecial2/judge-bars-intelligent-design-from-pa-classes.html

Textbooks which Promoted Conservative Christian Political Goals

1842 - The Religious instruction of the Negroes in the United States
ORIGIN on THE AMERICAN INDIANS. Hence it seems, at first glance, almost impossible that it should have been reached, in an age when ships Were small‘ and frail, when the mariner’s compass was unknown and the sailor dared not trust himself out of sight of land. This led men to suppose that the inhabitants of America did not descend from Adam and Eve, but from a race previously created. Such a theory’ is plainly contrary to the Bible record, nor is it needed to account for the settlement of America. .8. Later discoveries have brought to light a fact unknown to geographers three hundred years ago, that America wi- dens rapidly in the north, and there juts out into the ocean till it comes within thirty-six ‘miles of Asia. , As a current sets -towards the American shore, the passage thither can be readily made even in rude vessels. Boats may have been driven over by stress of weather, and the continent thus have been discovered without design. But there was a still‘ easier means of communication. In severe seasons, ,Behring’s Strait is frozen over. , ‘Many varieties of animals have passed on the ice from one continent to the other; and the first occupants of America, led by curiosity, or driven by violence,- may have reached the new world in the same manner. 9. At what time this event took place, we are not informed. History makes no mention of it. It is probable that it occurred at an early date, not many centuries after the dispersion at Babel and the consequent emigration from the plain of Shi’nar.
1875 Analysis of Civil Government
There is little need of comment "on this clause‘‘.‘‘ No “man can Well doubt the propriety of placing a President of the" United States’ under the most solemn obligations to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution. It is "a suitable ‘pledge of his fidelity and responsibility to his 'country', and creates upon his conscience a deep ‘sense duty, by an appeal at once, in the presence of God and man, to the most sacred and solemn sanctions Which can operate upon the human mind
Oath. A solemn aflirmation or declaration, before a competent tribunal or ofiieer, to tell the truth, appealing to God for the truth of what is asserted.
1875 - Politics for young adults
TO PARENTS AND TEACHERS. to be a good citizen of the United States one ought to be imbued with the spirit of Christianity, and to believe in and act upon the teachings of Jesus. He condemned self-seeking, covetousness, hypocrisy, class distinctions, envy, malice, undue and ignoble ambition
Old textbooks:
ATTITUDES REVEALED IN SUBJECT MATTER Since geography textbooks dealt extensively with people and customs, the opportunity was great for authors to reveal their attitudes regarding the various peoples and their ways of living. In many geographies, especially in the earlier ones, the content revealed that the attitudes of the authors were often biased. Religious Attitudes. The earliest geographies were written when our country was still dominantly Protestant and the academic leaders were either trained as ministers or at least deeply religious. J edidiah Morse and Elijah Parish were both Congregational ministers. Not even all Protestant groups were equally respected. For example, in the first American written geography, Morse in 1784 referred to the Presbyterians and Lutherans as “numerous and respectable.” Parish, in enumerating the religious groups, began with small letters the words Baptists, Methodists, Quakers, and Catholics, but began with capital letters Presbyterian, Congregationalists, and Lutherans. ‘ Many of the early books particularly contained unfavorable comments about other religions than Protestants. Morse in his 1790 edition referred to Roman Catholicism in Spain as “of most bigoted, superstitious, and tyrannical character.” Dwight (1806), Parish (1810), and Adams (1818) used the term “Pop- ery” in referring to Roman Catholicism. Davies (1805) claimed that the priests in Ireland ruled with “blind superstition and ignorance.” Many other early geographies contained similar statements. Later several geography textbooks were written by Catholic
GEOGRAPHIES Q13 authors which were equally biased against Protestantism. Among these were texts by Pinnock (1853) and Sadlier (1880). The latter, in referring to religious conditions in Ireland, said: England abandoned the Catholic faith in the 16th century, and to this country belongs the ignoble distinction of having oppressed and persecuted the Irish nation with a barbarity unparalleled in the history of man’s inhumanity to man. Most Protestant authors referred to the Protestants in Euro- pean countries with respect. Parish (1810) said, “The Scotch clergy are men of learning and piety.” Woodbridge (1835) said, in referring to the Scots, “They are remarkable for knowledge and morality, produced by their numerous schools, and their at- tention to public worship.” In referring to non-Christian religions, likewise, uncompli- mentary statements were often made. A number of authors re- ferred to Mahomet as an “imposter.” Morse (1800) wrote: “In a word, the contagion spread over Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Persia; Mahomet, from a deceitful hypocrite, became the most powerful monarch in his time.” Warren in 1872 referred to Mohammed as a “false prophet.” Uncomplimentary statements were also made about the religions in Japan and India. Reform Attitudes. The teaching of religion and morality was really the chief aim of education in early American schools. This aim was even dominant. in geography textbooks. Thus many forms of behavior which the authors considered immoral were severely condemned. Alcohol. Morse (1790) believed “in proportion as the use of beer increases, in the same proportion will the use of spiritous liquors decrease. This will be a happy exchange.” Parish (1810) condemned the “numerous Taverns,” and “grogshops.” Several condemned the sale of liquors to Indians.
submitted by intellectualgulf to u/intellectualgulf [link] [comments]


2020.08.28 15:00 DarthEquus The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 2: 1885-1899

The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 2: 1885-1899
In this brief period, circumcision rapidly transformed from an experimental procedure of antiquity into a nearly unquestioned cure-all for every ailment imaginable. Doctors also began to scrutinize the possible applications towards women as well.
In reference to the promotion of genital cutting by men like Remondino, Hutchinson, Johnson, Freeman, Lehman, and others, Jonathan Cohen (2011) wrote: "one of the most fascinating stories of the institutionalization of medical male circumcision is the discursive use of the Jews as racial proof of the benefits of circumcision, with a complete ignorance of sociological factors."

1885: ~10% of the American male population is circumcised

1887 Lewis Sayre, after promoting preventative circumcision for almost 20 years, finally limited his circumcision advocacy to therapeutic circumcision only rather than "indiscriminate" circumcision. His idea of therapeutic circumcision did still mean overdiagnosing infantile phimosis, but this was still an enormous improvement from his previous influential recommendations of totally non-therapeutic, preventative circumcision. [On the deleterious results of a narrow prepuce and preputial adhesions Trans. Ninth Internat. Med. Congress]
1887 M. A. Rust addressed circumcision in writing about the history of cultural mutilations:
"There is not a single tribe of savages on the face of the globe who do not disfigure parts of their bodies, and hardly a part of the body susceptible of disfigurement which has not been disfigured. This is not done in accordance with individual fancy, but in strict conformity to inexorable tribal rule.
Ornamentation lies at the root of many, but not of all of these mutilations. A great number of them entail such an amount of suffering and torture that, in order to establish them, to enforce submission and co-operation, potencies awful and mysterious must have been at work, striking fear into every individual heart. Once established, the obligation became as automatic as the daily walks of an ant.
Circumcision is the most ancient and widely spread mutilation in existence, and it is practiced in all the five parts of the world, though to the greatest extent in Asia, Africa, and among the savages of Australia. Of civilized nations we note about one hundred and thirty millions of Muhamedans, and about ten millions of Jews, and the Christians of Abyssinia. It was practiced in Mexico at the time of the conquest of Cortez, and, according to the accounts of modern travelers is still in use among Indian tribes in Nicaragua and on the Amazon.
No wonder that the origin of a mutilation so barbarous, so repulsive, and, at the same time, so widely spread and so tenaciously adhered to should have so repeatedly formed an object of inquiry and speculation. Muhamed found circumcision already an ancient usage among many of the Arabian tribes; he took it up for reasons akin to those for which Paul dropped it. It had prevailed, since time immemorial, among the Abyssinians, when they embraced Christianity. Travelers who make inquiries among savage tribes generally obtain for answer that it is a tribal custom which has always been; they cannot conceive why other reasons should be demanded."
[Mutilations. Gaillard's Medical Journal v. 45.]
1887 Angel Money writes:
"There can be no doubt of [masturbation's] injurous effect, and of the proneness to practice it on the part of children with defective brains. Circumcision should always be practiced. It may be necessary to make the genitals so sore by blistering fluids that pain results from attempts to rub the parts."
[Treatment of Disease In Children, Philidelphia: P. Blakiston, 1887. p.421.]
1888 John Harvey Kellogg (yes, the cereal guy) promoted irrational fear of masturbation and "spermatorrhoea." For girls, he warned that masturbation caused breast atrophy, uterine cancer, and insanity. He recommended circumcision and other surgical punishments for both boys and girls to punish and discourage masturbation. He also wrote positively of cauterizing the clitoris with acid to alleviate masturbation in girls. It's notable and often forgotten that he was promoting cutting the genitals of older children rather than infants. He wrote positively of the Jewish practice but also noted its tendency to scar the meatus (meatal stenosis). He advanced the propaganda that ancient genital surgery had always been performed for health. He also advocated the use of male chastity belts. The next entry after circumcision is castration as if to imply it was also the next genital surgical option should circumcision fail to produce the intended result. Like Kellogg, Hutchinson had also suggested castration as the next and more extreme option to cure masturbation.
"In younger children, with whom moral considerations will have no particular weight, other devices may be used. Bandaging the parts has been practiced with success. Tying the hands is also successful in some cases; but this will not always succeed, for they will often contrive to continue the habit in other ways, as by working the limbs, or lying upon the abdomen. Covering the organs with a cage has been practiced with entire success. A remedy which is almost always successful in small boys is circumcision, especially when there is any degree of phimosis. The operation should be performed by a surgeon without administering an anæsthetic, as the brief pain attending the operation will have a salutary effect upon the mind, especially if it be connected with the idea of punishment, as it may well be in some cases. The soreness which continues for several weeks interrupts the practice, and if it had not previously become too firmly fixed, it may be forgotten and not resumed."
"In females, the author has found the application of pure carbolic acid to the clitoris an excellent means of allaying the abnormal excitement, and preventing the recurrence of the practice in those whose will-power has become so weakened that the patient is unable to exercise entire self-control."
[Results of Secret Vice and Treatment for Self-abuse and Its Effects in Plain Facts for Old and Young, Burlington, Iowa, F. Segner & Co. — a longer excerpt from this work]

Chastity belts for boys and girls
1889 Peter Remondino, a San Diego physician and promoter of snake oil read his "A Plea for Circumcision; or, the Dangers that Arise from the Prepuce" at the meeting of the Southern California Medical Society.
"The subject of the paper was itself suggested by a long and personal observation of the changes made in man by circumcision. From the individual observation of cases, it was but natural to wish to enlarge the scope of our observation and comparison; this naturally led to a study of the physical characteristics of the only race that could practically be used for the purpose. This race is the Jewish race. On carefully studying into the subject, I plainly saw that much of their longevity could consistently be ascribed to their more practical humanitarianism, in caring for their poor, their sick, as well as in their generous provision for their unfortunate aged people. The social fabric of the Jewish family is also more calculated to promote long life, as, strangely as it may seem, family veneration and family love and attachment are far more strong and practical among this people than among Christians, this sentiment not being even as strong in the Christian races as it is in the Chinese or Japanese. … Actual observations show them [the Jews] to be exempt from many diseases which affect other races; so that it is not only that they recover more promptly, but that they are not, as a class, subjected to the loss of time by illness, or to the consequent sufferings due to illness or disease, in anything like or like ratio with other people. There is also a less tendency to criminality, debauchery, and intemperance in the race; this, again, can in a measure be ascribed to their family influence, which even in our day has not lost that patriarchal influence which tinges the home or family life in the Old Testament. Crimes against the person or property committed by Jews are rare. They likewise do not figure in either police courts or penitentiary records; they are not inmates of our poor-houses, but, what is also singular, they are never accused of many silly crimes, such as indecent exposures, assaults on young girls…."

1890: ~15% of the American male population is circumcised

1890 Herbert Snow, a London surgeon published a 57-page book, one of the first intactivist volumes of the modern era. He called for "the abolition of an antiquated practice involving the infliction of very considerable suffering upon helpless infants; and sanctioned, on very questionable grounds, by men of eminent authority.
"No sane man who possessed the advantages of a sound and entire prepuce would willingly sacrifice it without just and sufficient cause being shown."
[The Barbarity of Circumcision as a Remedy for Congenital Abnormality. London: J. & A. Churchill.]

The Orificial Surgical Society

1890 The Orificial Surgical Society "was founded by Edwin Hartley Pratt, a surgeon at the Cook County Hospital in Chicago. The organization was largely concerned with orifices below the waist, and provided training for surgery of the prepuce, clitoris, and rectum, the latter organ being given special emphasis. It was obsessed with the idea that most diseases were caused by tightness of the preputial or anal sphincters. … By the 1920s many of the member physicians had their licenses revoked." —Wallerstein Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy 1980:38 — See also: Rutkow IM. Edwin Hartley Pratt and orificial surgery: unorthodox surgical practice in nineteenth century United States. Surgery. 1993. and Moments in surgical history: orificial surgery. Arch Surg. 2001.
1890 William D. Gentry declared that phimosis in men and uterine disorders in women caused insanity, blindness, deafness, dumbness, epilepsy, paralysis and criminal behavior adding that "the genitals of either male or female are the centres of the nervous system". [Nervous derangements produced by sexual irregularities in boys. Trans American Institute of Homeopathy. v.43.]
1890 Jonathan Hutchinson wrote that the foreskin encouraged masturbation and "adds to the difficulties of sexual continence" and can even cause insanity. For evidence of the latter point, he pointed to the case of an anonymous surgeon committed to an insane asylum for compulsive masturbation. Adult circumcision was useful, he wrote, for breaking men of the habit of masturbation, but early childhood circumcision was ideal in his opinion. In closing, he wrote: "Measures more radical than circumcision would, if public opinion permitted their adoption, be a true kindness to many patients of both sexes" referring to the difficulty of getting the general public to accept the idea of doctor's electing to sterilize patients without their consent. [On circumcision as preventive of masturbation. Arch Surgery.]
1890 A review of Pogorelsky's Ritual circumcision of the Hebrews stated:
"As regards the predisposition to the acquirement of neuroses, the foreskin plays the same part in the male as the ovaries in the female." Sayre traced reflex paralysis and contracture of the lower extremeties; Erichsen, spasmodic diseases, to congenital phimosis.
Further, hypochondriacal persons with inclination to commit suicide, individuals who suffer from uro-paraplegia, nervous tremor, chorea minor, neuralgia, hysteria, hallucinations and paresis have been cured by circumcision.
Although circumcised persons contract gonorrhea more easily than uncircumcised, yet syphilis less often; the sexual desire is less in the former, hence crimes against morality are rarer."
Review of Pogorelsky M. Ritual circumcision of the Hebrews in The Medical Times. v.17. 1890.]
1891 Peter C. Remondino published a book of circumcision activism in which he vilified the foreskin at length as a malign influence and "moral outlaw." Repeating the false circumcision-prevents-masturbation meme, Remondino wrote, "the practice of [masturbation] can be asserted as being very rare among the children of circumcised races." According to Remondino excising foreskin would not only discourage boys from masturbating, but immunize them against tuberculosis, cancer, syphilis, polio, idiocy, forgetfulness, impotence, unwanted erections, wet dreams and just about any medical problem you cared to mention.
"The prepuce seems to exercise a malign influence in the most distant and apparently unconnected manner: where, like some of the evil genii or sprites in the Arabian tales, it can reach from afar the object of its malignity, striking him down unawares in the most unaccountable manner; making him a victim to all manner of ills, sufferings, and tribulations; unfitting him for marriage or the cares of business; making him miserable and an object of continual scolding and punishment in childhood, through its worriments and nocturnal enuresis; later on, beginning to affect him with all kinds of physical distortions and ailments, nocturnal pollutions, and other conditions calculated to weaken him physically, mentally, and morally; to land him, perchance, in jail or even in a lunatic asylum. Man's whole life is subject to the capricious dispensations and whims of this Job's-comforts-dispensing enemy of man."
[Remondino PC. History of Circumcision… moral and physical reasons for its performance… and of the different operations practiced upon the prepuce Philadelphia: F. A. Davis. 1891.]
1891 Jefferson C. Crossland writes that:
"In consequence of circumcision the epithelial covering of the glans becomes dry, hard, less liable to excoriation and inflammation, and less pervious to venereal viruses. The sensibility of the glans is diminished, but not sufficiently to interfere with the copulative function of the organ or to constitute an objection...It is well authenticated that the foreskin...is a fruitful cause of the habit of masturbation in children... I conclude that the foreskin is detrimental to health, and that circumcision is a wise measure of hygiene."
[The Hygiene of Circumcision. NYMJ. 1891;53:484-485.]
1892 Circumcision was not the only proposed cure for masturbation. Some physicians such as David Yellowlee detailed another version of punitive and supposedly therapeutic preputial infibulation:
"Some direct operative interference, which shall prevent masturbation and show him that he can live without it, may be of much service. The best form of such interference is so to fix the foreskin that erection becomes painful and erotic impulses very unwelcome. To accomplish this, the prepuce is drawn well forward, the left forefinger inserted within it down to the root of the glans, and a nickel‐plated safety‐pin, introduced from the outside through skin and mucous membrane, is passed horizontally for half an inch or so past the tip of the left finger, and then brought out through mucous membrane and skin so as to fasten outside. Another pin is similarly fixed on the opposite side of the prepuce. With the foreskin thus looped up any attempt at erection causes a painful dragging on the pins, and masturbation is effectually prevented. In about a week some ulceration of the mucous membrane will allow greater movement and with less pain, when the pins can, if needful, be introduced into a fresh place."
It should be pointed out that Yellowlee's advocacy of infibulation was not limited to the treatment of inmates in lunatic asylums, and was, in fact, directed at parents, whose duty, he declared, was to prevent their children from adopting ‘the secret vice’.
[In Tuke DH ed. A Dictionary of Psychological Medicine. Vol. 2. London: J&A Churchill, 1892: 784 – 6]
1893 Mark J. Lehman claimed Jewish boys were healthier. He noted it was "an open question" whether tuberculosis, cancer, syphilis, and "scrofula" were not "one and the same disease," and whether "such a simple measure as general circumcision" would not be the answer to all "insidious and filthy diseases." He called for immediate universal circumcision of all male infants. [A plea for circumcision. Medical Review.]
1893 An unnamed author for The Journal de Medicine de Paris provided a look into popular thought of the day on female circumcision (meaning only non-excisive incision here) writing:
"A certain Dr. Morris, of Boston, the land of Yankee notions, has discovered an ingenious method of making the most waspish and shrewish women models of gentleness and modesty. He proves by statistics that eighty out of one hundred American women of Aryan origin in New England have the gland of the clitoris adherent, in part or totality, to the prepuce. The result of these adherences is an imperfect development of the gland, and to this is due a weakness of sexual desire and various nervous perturbations. These troubles are dependent, in the first place, on an irritation of the terminal branches of the erectile nerves of the gland brought on by the adherences, and in the second place to irritation caused by the retention of smegma. This double irritation leads to masturbation, to the perversion of sexual desire, and finally to reflex neuroses.The preputial adherences of the clitoris are, according to Dr. Morris, the only and direct cause of the reflex neuroses from which thousands of New England women suffer, and he adds: "We can now understand how the most irritable young girl, the one who is most disagreeable and hysterical, may be made gentle, charming, and become endowed with a thousand feminine graces, by the simple rupture of the bands that bind down the clitoris [clitoral incision]." The therapeutic deduction is perfect, and we do not doubt that all husbands in New England who have shrewish wives will now employ Dr. Morris to break up these adhesions of the clitoris, and bring peace to many a suffering Boston household."
[Adherent Clitoris in all Shrewish Women. Cincinnati Lancet-Clinic. Translated from J Med Paris.]
1894 Peter C. Remondino claimed circumcision would curb the "predisposition" of black men to rape white women. Remondino's proposal was supported by several medical journals including the Maryland Medical Journal and the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (now the New England Journal of Medicine).
"From our observations and experience in such cases, we feel fully warranted in suggesting the wholesale circumcision of the Negro race as an efficient remedy in preventing the predisposition to discriminate raping so inherent in that race. We have seen this act as a valuable preventive measure in cases where an inordinate and unreasoning as well as morbid carnal desire threatened physical shipwreck; if in such cases the morbid appetite has been removed or at least brought within manageable and natural bounds, we cannot see why it should not—at least in a certain beneficial degree—also affect the moral stamina of a race proverbial for the leathery consistency, inordinate redundancy, generous sebaceousness and general mental suggestiveness and hypnotizing influence of an unnecessary and rape, murder and lynching breeding prepuce."
[Negro rapes and their social problems. National Popular Review vol. 4 p. 3.]
1894 Darby (2005) wrote: “eleven boys confined in a Kansas mental institute were castrated for persistent masturbation.” When the press was critical of this, "the Kansas Medical Journal defended the institute's action” writing “this abuse weakened the already imbecile mind and destroyed the body” (Darby, 2005).
1895 Charles E. Fisher, a homeopathic doctor, wrote:
"In all cases in which male children are suffering nerve tension, confirmed derangement of the digestive organs, restlessness, irritability, and other disturbances of the nervous system, even to chorea, convulsions, and paralysis, or where through nerve waste the nutritive facilities of the general system are below par and structural diseases are occurring circumcision should be considered as among the lines of treatment to be pursued."
A like rule obtains with reference to female children. In general practice the sexual organs in both sexes should be carefully examined by the general practitioner in early infancy, and at various times throughout child-life, with reference to the correction of deformity or unnatural conditions that may be present. ...the clitoris is often firmly bound down by an adherent hood; numerous reflexes arising therefrom. It has become quite the rule the examine the sexual organs of male children at or soon after birth, but, on the other hand, it is equally the rule to neglect to examine girl babies. As children of the weaker sex grow their more delicate nervous systems begin to show the effect of genital irritations, and many a case of chorea, confirmed headache, nervous jactitations, paralytic weakness, unusual irritability, melancholia or other abnormal state of the nervous system long remains uncured because of the failure to make careful examination of the condition of the genitalia and relieve irritations and adhesions at this site."
[A Hand-Book On The Diseases of Children And Their Homeopathic Treatment. Chicago: Medical Century Co. 1895]
1895 Edgar J. Spratling began his article explaining that part of the great evil of masturbation was that it might lead to being sodomized in an insane asylum. He advocated tight circumcisions to prevent the skin from being able to move, a natural feature of the human penis which facilitates masturbation. If not tight circumcision, cutting the nerves to the penis could also be used to blunt the individual's sexuality, and he advocated that surgery as well, but it was a more delicate surgery compared to circumcision.
"In women the road to its cure is an endless and monotonous journey, for nothing short of ovariotomy will be found to deserve even the term palliative; clitoridectomy, anatomically and physiologically, could be but a failure, blistering [i.e., cauterization is] only [a] cruelty. Among men the case is not so hopeless, for there anatomy is partly in the operator's favor [meaning male erogenous sensitivity is easier to destroy]. Of the treatments we might speak of blistering the glans penis, but only to condemn it as an uncalled for cruelty; the possible beneficial effect is so transient, while the untoward effect is often so lasting upon the patient mentally in the way of a feeling of resentment, that it is doubtful if one could ever justify such a proceeding. Complete section of the dorsal nerves of the penis (as I have previously advocated) is a rational procedure, but rather too radical for constant routine practice. The cases require the greatest care in the selection for this operation, and even then with all due care one will generally have to encounter the most strenuous objections and later the bitterest reproach and condemnation from the patients and from their relatives—though the object sought may have been obtained [at the expense of causing penile numbness and impotence]. [In cases of masturbation] circumcision is undoubtedly the physicians' closest friend and ally.
"To obtain the best results one must cut away enough skin and mucous membrane to rather put it on the stretch when erections come later. There must be no play in the skin after the wound has thoroughly healed, but it must fit tightly over the penis, for should there be any play the patient will be found to readily resume his practice not begrudging the time and extra energy required to produce the orgasm. It is true, however, that the longer it takes to have an orgasm, the less frequently it will be attempted, consequently the greater the benefit gained.
"The younger the patient operated upon the more pronounced the benefit, though occasionally we find patients who were circumcised before puberty that require a resection of the skin, as it has grown loose and pliant after that epoch."
[Masturbation in the Adult. Med Rec.]
1895 T. Ritchie Stone strongly advocated circumcision for all male infants in his pro-surgery review. [Circumcision. Maryland Med J.]
1896 An editorial in a scientific journal lists reasons for circumcision as everything from bed wetting to elephantitis.
"Local indications for circumcision: Hygienic, phimosis, paraphimosis, redundancy (where the prepuce more than covers the glans), adhesions, papillomata, ecaema (acute and chronic), oedema, chancre, chancroid, cicatrices, inflammatory thickening, elephantitis, naevus, epithelioma, gangrene, tuberculosis, prepupital calculi, hip-joint disease, hernia. Systematic indication: Onanism [masturbation], seminal emissions, enuresis [bed wetting], dysuria, retention, general nervousness, impotence, convulsions, hystero-epilepsy."
[Medical Record, Circumscisus, Medical Record, vol. 49 (1896): p.430.]
1897 S. G. A. Brown of Pennsylvania repeated the same Semitophillic sentiment as Remondino:
"The Jews, who perform this operation on the eighth day after birth, are, from actual observations, known to be exempt from many diseases which afflict other races. Their children are hardy, and grow up to manhood and womanhood strangers to disease, perfect in body, sound in mind, and with a morality above condemnation. It is rare that they figure in silly crimes, police or divorce courts. That an appendage like the prepuce which under various conditions, as phimosis, short frenum or preputial adhesions, is the leading factor in the production of enuresis, dysuria, impotence, calculi, cancer, syphilis, phthisis or various other reflex neuroses, can be considered as a natural physiological appendage, is absurd in the extreme. In order to render the rising generation healthy, mentally morally and physically, we must pay attention to this redundant tissue, and advise its early removal. Fully three-fourths of all male babies have abnormal prepuces."
[A Plea for Circumcision. J Orificial Surgery quoted in The Medical World]
1898 T. Scott McFarland of Missouri reported on the circumcision of a two-year-old girl with precocious puberty and anomalous symptoms of irritation. In closing he added that he had "circumcised as many girls as boys, and always with happy results." Note that circumcision meant prepucectomy for either sex until the 1980s. The more severe form of genital cutting more familiar to people today as female circumcision/FGM meaning clitoridectomy was then called "[clitoral] excision" or the oddly overgeneralized, "operative procedure". [Circumcision of girls. J Orificial Surgery.]
1898 Edwin H. Pratt wrote:
"The condition of the foreskin of boys has received more or less attention, at least since the days of Moses, who is reported to have inaugurated the practice of circumcision of the male portion of the human race. But the girls have been neglected. Without presuming to pose as their Moses, I do feel an irresistible impulse to cry out against the shameful neglect of the clitoris and its hood, because of the vast amount of sickness and suffering, which could be saved the gentler sex, if this important subject received proper attention and appreciation at the hands of the medical profession.
All up-to-date doctors realize the importance of the proper condition of the foreskin in the male and of securing it during infancy. The foreskin must be completely loosened, if it is too long amputated and if it is too tight slit open, in order to avoid the dangers of infantile convulsions, of hip-joint disease, of kidney disease, of paralysis, of eczema universalis, of stammering, of dyspepsia, of pulmonary tuberculosis, of constipation, of locomotor ataxia, of rheumatism, of idiocy and insanity, and of lust and all its consequences. But the poor girls, who have an organ called the clitoris, anatomically corresponding to the penis of the male, with a hood corresponding to the foreskin of the male and just as sorely in need of [surgical] attention, and just as prolific of mischief when neglected as the corresponding parts of the male, have been permitted to suffer on in silence. The same list of diseases which have their start in nerve waste caused by a faulty foreskin in the male is duplicated by the female sex from identically the same cause, in addition to other troubles peculiar to the female organization from which, of course, the male are exempt, and yet it goes on almost entirely unrecognized. Chorea, so frequent in young girls, chlorosis, which comes a little later on, and hysteria, which is also a common affliction, in addition to the same diseases from which boys whose foreskin have been neglected are liable to suffer, have their organ almost invariably in faulty conditions of the hood of the clitoris. It is such a simple matter to secure a normal condition of the hood and its clitoris, and its neglect is fraught with so much and such serious mischief to the gentler sex, that the sin of omission which is being constantly and everywhere committed is painful to contemplate. Doctors are not easily educated out of their beaten tracks.
So let both sexes have a start in life and be entirely freed from the sexual self consciousness which inevitably comes from impinged nerve fibres about the clitoris and its hood as well as at the glans penis and its foreskin. ... A vigorous sympathetic nervous system means health and long life. What surgical interest have we in this fact? It can be told in just one sentence. The weakness and the power of the sympathetic nerve lies at the orifices of the body. Surgery must keep these orifices properly smoothed and dilated."
[Circumcision of Girls. J Orificial Surgery.]
Women suffering from \"hysteria\"
1898 N. Bergman wrote of "punishing" a chronic masturbator with circumcision:
"Clarence B. was addicted to the secret vise practiced among boys. I performed an orificial operation, consisting of circumcision... He needed the rightful punishment of cutting pains after his illicit pleasures."
[Report of a Few Cases of Circumcision. Journal of Orificial Surgery, vol. 7 (1898): pp.249-251.]
1898 Emmet L. Holt advocated for circumcision under the following reasoning:
"Circumcision should be done if phimosis exists, and even where it is not, the moral effect of the operation is sometimes of very great benefit."
[The Diseases Of Infancy And Childhood. New York: D. Appleton. 1897:696-698.]
1899 Denslow Lewis, a Chicago gynecologist, presented evidence for the benefits of female circumcision (prepucectomy) at a meeting of the AMA in 1899. In “a large percentage” of women who failed to find marital passion “there is a preputial adhesion, and a judicious circumcision, together with consistent advice, will often be successful.” He treated 38 women with circumcision reporting “reasonably satisfactory results in each instance.” [The Gynecologic consideration of the sexual act]

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2020.08.27 14:47 trifletruffles Clifford "Clifton" Walker-found murdered in his car on February 29, 1964 in Woodville, Mississippi-Closed Case under the Civil Rights Division Emmett Till Act

On February 29, 1964, in Woodville, Mississippi, 37 year old Clifford “Clifton” Walker was "killed by a close range shotgun blast to the head." Clifton was killed on his way home from a local bar which he visited after his work shift ended at the International Paper Company in Natchez, Mississippi. [Name redacted in the closing memorandum] was the last person to see Clifton alive; the man worked with Clifton and carpooled with him back to Woodville where he was dropped off at his at approximately 11:40 p.m. Clifton's body was was found the following afternoon in his car "which had been heavily damaged by shotgun blasts."
Clifton's body was "found" (quotation mark used similarly in the closing memorandum) in his car by Prentiss Mathis who flagged down a local patrolman, R. W. Palmertree. Patrolman Palmertree immediately notified Sheriff Charles T. Netterville of Wilkenson County, Mississippi, and an inquiry into the murder began. After initially processing the crime scene, Sheriff Neterville contacted the Mississippi Highway Patrol for assistance. Patrol investigators traveled to Woodville in February and March of 1964 to talk with witnesses and to review evidence. The last known MHP report from March of 1964 "identifies three prime suspects – Carl Cavin, Prentiss Mathiss and Red Metcalf – in the murder." The FBI, noted in its later investigation, that there is little available evidence linking Carl and Red to the murder. Aside from the fact that Prentiss found Clifton's body, the only other evidence linking Prentiss to the murder comes from investigators noting that Mathiss was “uncooperative and belligerent” throughout his interview with the highway patrol investigators, and that he had “an extreme dislike for Negros.” The FBI became involved in the matter when, on February 29, 1964, they received a report that Clifton had been shot and killed in Mississippi. The FBI monitored the investigation and ultimately closed its case in the winter of 1964. Clifton’s murder remains unsolved.
1964 Mississippi Highway Patrol (MHP) Investigation:
MHP began its investigation into Clifton's murder by interviewing Patrolman Palmertree, who was the first law enforcement officer to respond to the crime scene. Patrol Palmertree reported that Prentiss flagged him down at approximately 1 p.m. on February 29, 1964, and told him that there was a “dead man” in a car on Poor House Road, north of Woodville. When Patrolman Palmertree arrived at the scene, he noticed that Clifton's body was slumped to the right of the driver’s seat with his feet under the floor board. Patrolman Palmertree stated that "all of the windows of the vehicle were shot out, and that several shots had been fired into the body,” but could not advise how many." Patrolman Palmertree further noted that shotgun shells and wadding were found in Clifton's vehicle, which "remained in high gear despite the fact that the engine was off, and that the keys were stuck in the dash board compartment lock with the compartment swinging open." Inside the compartment was "a .38 caliber Smith and Wesson four-inch barrel, chrome-plated firearm."
MHP next spoke with Sheriff Netterville who surmised Clifton had been dead approximately twelve to fourteen hours when Patrolman Palmertree arrived on scene. Sheriff Netterville also reported that Clifton's wallet with $148.00 in cash was recovered from the scene.
At approximately 7:30 p.m. on February 29, 1964, MHP investigators were able to view Clifton's body noting that "it appeared that a full load of buck shot entered just under the left ear appearing to be fired at a very close range.” Another load "appeared to have entered Walker’s chin and mouth on the right side tearing away parts of the mouth, chin and neck."
MHP focused its investigation on trying to find a motive for the killings; accordingly, MHP interviewed people who worked with or knew Clifton in an effort to develop leads. Many of Clifton's co-workers reported that although the International Paper Company had recently integrated its facilities, there was no known conflict between Clifton and any white workers. Many of Clifton's co-workers "generally had a favorable opinion of his character and could not provide a motive for the killing."
MHP next interviewed [name redacted in the closing memorandum] who was the last known person to see Clifton alive. [Name redacted] advised that he was very close to Clifton, and that "if [Clifton] had trouble with anyone, he would have known about it." [Name redacted] indicated that on the night of Clifton's murder, he rode home with Clifton to the “car pool,” which was approximately one mile north of Poor House Road. The “car pool” refers to "a place where people would drop off their vehicles before carpooling with one another to work." From there, [Name redacted] followed Clifton down Highway 61 until Clifton's vehicle turned onto Poor House Road. [Name redacted] did not know who killed Clifton.
As the MHP investigation continued, investigators learned of rumors that Clifton "had been talking to white women, and that some white men took offense to this." It appears that MHP "attempted to substantiate these rumors, but the remnants of their case file show a disjointed investigation that failed to produce enough evidence to charge anyone in the murder." MHP "seemed particularly interested" in learning more about Clifton's interactions with white men and women at Nettles Truck Stop on Highway 61, six miles north of Woodville. One former employee, a white 40-year old woman named Geraldine Vines, reported that in September or October of 1963, Clifton commented to her “I sho does likes you,”; Geraldine reported the comment to Mildred Nettles who was the wife of the owner of the truck stop, Jennings B. Nettles. Jennings told Clifton to “get up and leave and to never darken the door of that place of business [again].”
Geraldine also reported that she had heard from Mildred “a few years back” that Clifton had tried to run Mildred into a ditch on Poor House Road. MHP contacted Mildred who advised that in 1956 or 1957, she was taking one of her employees home when Clifton's car almost ran her into a ditch on Poor House Road. Mildred reported that she knew it was Clifton's car vehicle because her employee remarked “there goes that damn smart alec negro Walker.” Immediately afterwards, Mildred drove to the truck stop and told her husband about her encounter with Clifton. Jennings and Mildred drove back to Poor House Road to look for Clifton, but by the time they arrived he was gone. When MHP interviewed Jennings, he said that Clifton was a “good negro with whom he had no complaints." The investigation files at the time noted that while this incident could have provided Jennings with a “motive to harm" Clifton, MHP did not uncover any evidence linking him to Clifton's murder. However, it appears that no efforts were made by MHP to account for Jennings' whereabouts on the night of the murder.
MHP further inquired about other alleged “inappropriate interactions" Clifton may have had with white women. Sheriff Netterville notified MHP that he had information that [Name redacted in the closing memorandum] was "overheard on the telephone trying to get Doris Dover to accompany her on a negro date." MHP followed up on this lead by briefly interviewing David Vines and a woman whose name was redacted in the memorandum. David recalled that on the day before his murder, Clifton showed up at Rita Lee Dover’s home where he was invited to come inside. MHP recorded no further information from David, and his relationship to Rita is not specified in the investigative reports. MHP also interviewed Rita and her father noting that they “failed to find that they were connected in anyway,” to Clifton's murder. [Name redacted who was overheard on the telephone] was interviewed, but MHP concluded that she was not connected in any way with the case.
The information received by MHP relating to Clifton's "interactions with white women in Wilkenson County was never fully developed and never produced a viable suspect in the murder." The only “suspects identified in MHP’s report were Carl Cavin, Prentiss Mathis and Red Metcalf." The only mention of Carl and Red in the 32 page report from MHP is a single paragraph that states that [name redacted] was with Carl on the night of Clifton's murder at approximately 1 a.m. and “appeared to be extremely nervous and drinking fairly heavily.” [Name redacted] further reported that Carl had been in the company of Red, at around 10:30 p.m. that evening and was seen “within one mile of the murder scene.” Despite listing the three men as suspects, MHP never interviewed Carl or Red, and there was no other information contained in their report linking Carl and Metcalf to the murder. MHP closed its investigation without making any arrests.
1964 FBI Investigation:
After learning of Clifton's death, the FBI opened a case to provide limited assistance to the Sheriff’s Office and MHP. The FBI monitored and tracked the information they received from MHP before ultimately closing the case when no "prosecutable suspects were identified."
2009 FBI Investigation
In 2009, the FBI initiated a review of the circumstances surrounding Walker’s death, pursuant to the Department of Justice’s “Cold Case” initiative and the “Emmett Till Unsolved Civil Rights Crime Act of 2007,” which charges the Department of Justice to investigate “violations of criminal civil rights statutes . . . result[ing] in death” that “occurred not later than December 31, 1969.” The FBI reviewed the original 1964 FBI case file and conducted research to determine whether any of the “subjects identified by MHP or other relevant individuals were still alive." Prentiss, Red, and Carl were determined to be deceased along with the other witnesses noted in the preceding paragraphs.
On September 27, 2010, the FBI contacted [name redacted] who indicated that he had information regarding Clifton's murder. [Name redacted] recalled that he observed G.B. Sproles sawing off the barrel off a shotgun. G.B. had been "flagged earlier in the [1964] investigation as someone who [Clifton] may have had contact with" but not further information was provided. [Name redacted] asked him why he was doing so to which Sproles responded that "he had something to do, and then shooed [Name redacted] away. When [Name redacted] heard about Clifton's murder a few days later, he thought G.B. was probably involved. [Name redacted] later "heard talk between the adults" that Clifton had been killed because "he was going with a white woman." He also heard that the gun used to kill Clifton was thrown off the Mississippi River bridge in Natchez. [Name redacted] further reported that G.B. was “as sorry as the day was long,” but did not elaborate further on this remark. [Name redacted] stated that he would not be surprised if G.B. was involved in the murder. G.B. died in 1996.
On February 14, 2013, the FBI located [Name redacted] and interviewed her about Clifton's murder. [Name redacted] was similarly referenced in MHP’s 1964 report as an individual who had information regarding Clifton but no information was gathered as she had stated " I know too much about this mess and I aint gonna get involved.” [Name Redacted] told agents that on the night of Clifton's death she was in Louisiana with her boyfriend and did not learn of the shooting until she arrived back in Centerville, Mississippi the following day. Upon returning, she learned that law enforcement was looking for her because they believed she had information about Clifton's death. [Name redacted] reported that she left Centerville because she did not want to get involved with the investigation even though she had no knowledge of who killed Walker. [Name Redacted] further noted that she was interviewed in Louisiana shortly after Clifton's murder by local investigators. She explained to the investigators that she did not know who killed Clifton.
Beginning in the fall of 2010, the FBI was in contact with Ben Greenberg, a freelance journalist who was working on gathering information regarding the Clifton and other civil rights era victims. From the fall of 2010 through the summer of 2011, Ben "repeatedly sought to exchange information he had regarding [Clifton's] murder for access to un-redacted FBI information." Ben "claimed to have information that would be valuable to the FBI’s investigation;" however, he was advised that he would not be able to “trade information" for access to un-redacted FBI files. In July 2011, Mark J. Kappelhoff, of the U.S. Department of Justice, sent a letter to Ben requesting any information that he had related to Clifton's murder. Ben never responded to the request, and in July of 2012, he published an article in the Clarion Ledger detailing his investigative efforts. No additional leads were identified in Ben's article.
The Department of Justice closed Clifton's case after noting that that "this matter does not constitute a prosecutable violation of the federal criminal civil rights statutes" as "there are no known surviving eyewitnesses and there is no available physical evidence to review....as such, there is no reasonable possibility that further investigation will lead to a prosecutable case." The Department of Justice also noted that "continued investigation would not lead to a viable prosecution of a living suspect."
Ben Greenberg's investigation in the Clarion Ledger:
The preceding paragraphs relay the information provided in the FBI's closing memorandum. I found Ben's Clarion Ledger article and it noted that Clifton's daughter, Catherine Walker Jones, received a letter from the Justice Department that the case had been closed. However, she was surprised since agents investigating the case had never spoken to anyone in her family. Catherine opined she has been "disappointed in the manner in which promises are made by the Justice Department to families that have not gotten closure for the death of their loved ones....it's like you make it sound real good with the Cold Case Initiative, but there was no substance to it, none whatsoever." She further remarks "no one did any time in jail for killing a human being, a father, a husband, an American citizen, a veteran...you have people going to jail for killing dogs today...and there he was, a human being."
In contrast to the FBI's contention that no additional leads were provided in the article, Ben's investigation reveals that a mob ambushed Clifton Earl Walker Sr. on Poor House Road; this was believed to be "the first slaying by Mississippi's homegrown White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan." It appears FBI was aware of the news article but it is unclear if they followed up on the leads noted within. Per Ben's investigation, Clifton was driving home when the mob stopped his car on the dirt road off U.S. 61 near Woodville, Mississippi. The men surrounded Clifton and shot him repeatedly in the face. In the hours that followed, "the 37-year-old World War II veteran bled to death." The International Paper Plant was known as a "hotbed for Ku Klux Klan recruitment." The White Knights of the KKK are believed to have been responsible for at least 10 killings including the 1964 killings of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner.
After Clifton's body was found, three of Clifton's brothers-in-laws drove 55 miles south to Baton Rouge to see Ronnie Moore, who was Louisiana field secretary for the Council on Racial Equality. According to FBI documents, the three men talked to Ronnie, and he called and told the bureau that Clifton "had been shot down in Mississippi and that nothing had been done about it by local authorities." On March 1, 1964, FBI agents reported meeting with Ronnie and the three men. FBI Headquarters responded the next day with an order to "contact the Sheriff to ascertain if he is conducting any investigation of this matter and obtain any details available" and to send the bureau copies of any local newspaper coverage of the murder. The FBI opened the case, closed it a few months later, then briefly reopened it before moving on without resolution in December 1964, at which point MPH also closed the investigation.
The 2009 FBI investigation reviewed the 1964 files of both the MPH and FBI and determined there were no viable suspects. Accordingly, Clifton's murder remains unsolved.
Clifford "Clifton" Walker (1927-1964):
Born in 1927, Clifton was the last of nine children. Despite being the youngest, "his siblings respected him." According to his daughter, Catherine, when her father "saw [his siblings] arguing with their wives, he would pull his brothers on the side and tell them you don't talk to your wife that way...he was such a gentleman." His family called him "Man," and the nickname stuck. He met Ruby C. Phipps while walking home from Sunday school and married her two years later. He joined the army during World War II. Catherine and his other daughter Shirley recalled their father made sure "the family never went without" saying "we didn't have to cook on the wood stove...Daddy got a gas stove and a washing machine" remarking "he invested well, and [their mother] maintained their money well." Similarly, Shirley highlighted how her parents worked well "together as a unit...taking care of their children, teaching them what they needed to know to live in this world." In the 1950s, Clifton served in the army again during the Korean War. However, a knee injury sent him back home, and he started working at the nearby International Paper plant about 30 miles north of Woodville in southwest Mississippi.
In the days following the funeral, Ruby, "had a breakdown that frightened her children" with Catherine recalling "when Mama didn't recognize her children, I knew we were in trouble." Ruby recovered from the breakdown, but she had to take medication to sleep each night until her death in 1992 at the age of 65. Clifton's son, Cliff Jr., was 10 at the time of the slaying; Catherine opines Cliff Jr. "didn't realize or know Daddy...he was the kind of man a son really should have known."
Catherine says she has managed to survive saying "he's the sole reason that I'm alive today because his memory meant more to me than I meant to myself at one period." Overwhelmed with depression at times, she felt "it was just easier to die than live with the hurt and the agony of knowing that someone you loved more than the man you prayed to was gone...and it was a bitter, bitter struggle actually dealing with God because He could have prevented this and He didn't." Nevertheless, she "continues to believe justice is possible" opining "no justice has ever happened in dealing with my father, and if it doesn't happen during my time, I'm afraid it's not ever gonna happen."
Links:
https://www.justice.gov/crt/case-document/clifford-clifton-walker
https://www.clarionledger.com/story/journeytojustice/2014/08/29/kkk-killing-clifton-walker-unpunished/14814923/
I came across the Department of Justice’s cold case initiative while reading an article discussing journalists’ efforts to install a billboard on an Arkansas highway aimed at solving the 1954 lynching of Isadore Banks. The Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice launched a website (linked above) to make information about the department’s investigation of cold cases from the Civil Rights Era more accessible to the public. Over the years, the Department “has assisted in prosecuting Edgar Ray Killen in 2005, making him the eighth defendant convicted for the 1964 murders of three civil rights workers in Philadelphia, Mississippi (the "Mississippi Burning" case); secured life sentences in 2003 against the perpetrators of the 1963 Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama; and secured a federal conviction and life sentence of James Ford Seale for the kidnapping and murder of two teenagers in Franklin County, Mississippi in 1964.” Congress recognized the importance of these federal efforts when it enacted the Emmett Till Unsolved Civil Rights Crime Act in 2008.
Unfortunately, in many cases “legal and evidentiary barriers prevent the Department from moving forward with prosecution." In each case that is not prosecutable, the Department of Justice wrote a closing memo explaining the investigative steps taken and the basis for their conclusion. To date, the Department of Justice has uploaded 115 closing memos. I hope to be able to post on all of the closed cases as I share in the belief with the Department of Justice that “these stories should be told [as] there is value in a public reckoning with the history of racial violence and the complicity of government officials.”
Other posts from the Department of Justice's Cold Case Initiative:
  1. Isadore Banks-unsolved murder in Marion, Arkansas-June 1954
https://www.reddit.com/UnresolvedMysteries/comments/h03esj/isadore_bankslynched_in_marion_arkansas_on_june_8/
  1. Willie Joe Sanford-unsolved murder in Hawkinsville, Georgia-March 1957
https://www.reddit.com/UnresolvedMysteries/comments/h9v61n/willie_joe_sanfordfound_murdered_nea
  1. Ann Thomas-unsolved murder in San Antonio, Texas-April 1969
https://www.reddit.com/UnresolvedMysteries/comments/hdtv4b/ann_thomasfound_murdered_in_san_antonio_texas_on/
  1. Thad Christian-murdered on August 30, 1965 in Central City, Alabama
    https://www.reddit.com/UnresolvedMysteries/comments/i4fetd/thad_christianmurdered_on_august_30_1965_in/
  2. Silas Caston-killed on March 1, 1964 by a Hinds County Sheriff’s Office Deputy in Jackson, Mississippi
https://www.reddit.com/UnresolvedMysteries/comments/idx701/silas_castonkilled_on_march_1_1964_by_a_hinds/
submitted by trifletruffles to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]


2020.08.17 02:39 Alastair_the_Bird Parents of Elizabeth Christmas, will dated Nov. 29, 1824, died around May 1825

Hello, everyone. I wondered if anyone knows of any possible leads on the parents of Elizabeth Christmas, the wife of Thomas Howard. The Family Search page for her says she is likely a granddaughter of Thomas Cross Christmas, but I wonder further if she might be a great-grandaughter instead. She lived and died in Orange County North Carolina, which is the same place John Christmas (son of Thomas Cross Christmas) lived and his children. I'm not sure if any of the other sons of Thomas Cross ended up in North Carolina.
No birthdate is given for her, just speculation. All of her sons have the same names as the sons of John Christmas (John, James, Richard, and Thomas, though of course Thomas was also her husband's name), and the will of her husband mentions in his will a plantation he owns named "Christmas' Old Plan" to be given to one of his sons. I wonder if perhaps she is actually a grandaughter of John Christmas.
Here are the wills of her husband Thomas, then hers:
"Will of Thomas Howard dated 25 July 1815 and probated May 1820:
In the name of God, amen! I Thomas Howard Senior of the county of Orange and the state of North Carolina being weak in Body, but of Sound and disposing mind and memory thanks be to God, calling to mind the mortality of my Body, and knowing that it is appointed for all men once to die Do make and publish this my last will and testament, that is to say principally and first of all I five and commend my Soul into the hands of Almighty God who gave it me; and my Body I recommend to the Earth to be buried in a decent Christian manner at the discretion of my Executors, not doubting that at the general resurrection I shall receive the same again by the mighty power of God.
And as touching such worldly Estate wherewith it has pleased God to bless me in this life, I give, [], and dispose of in the following manner- (viz)
In primus- I give and bequeath to Elizabeth my beloved wife during her natural life both my plantations, and five of my oldest Negroes named Jack and his wife Luce, George, Patience and Sam together with my stock of all kind (to wit) Horses, Cows, Sheep, Hogs together with my farming utensils, Household and kitchen furniture by her to be possessed so long as she lives and at her death she is to dispose of the stock and the moveable affects as she pleases.
Item - I give to my son James Howard one Negro man named Henry which negro he has in possession, also another negro boy named Anderson.
Item- I give to my Daughter Henrietta two negro women named Old Luce, and after the death of her mother I likewise give her Patience. It is also my Will that she (my daughter Henrietta) shall me maintained on the Old Plantation call Christmas's as long as she lives single and will live upon it: She is likewise to have her Bed and Bedding, One Horse and Cow out of the Estate.
Item- I give to my son John Howard the negro man he now has named Charles and a negro child named Joe, Son of Patience.
Item- I give to my daughter Betsy Watson one negroe Boy named Moses who I direct to be hired out for her maintainance during her lifetime. I also give her one girl named Sukey.
Item- I give to my son Thomas Howard at the death of his brother the Plantation which I now live on containing Two Hundred and fifteen acres, one negro Boy called Young George, also one negro girl named Luce, daughter of Patience.
Item- I give to my son Richard Howard, my Plantation called Christmas's Old Plan, the plan on which my son Thomas now lives containing Two Hundred acres. I also give him after the death of his mother two negro men named Sam and George. Also one Bed.
Item- I leave to my Executors to be hereafter appointed One negro Boy to sell for the payment of my debts and also such other property as they can best spare.
I constitute nominate and appoint my beloved wife Elizabeth my Executrix and my loving son Richard my Executor to this my last will and testament.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my seal this twenty fifth day of July n the year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and fifteen.
Thomas Howard {his seal}
Signed sealed published and pronounced in the presence of us Thomas ScottStephen Glass"
Elizabeth's will reads:
" In the name of God, Amen! I Elizabeth Howard of Orange County in the State of North Carolina being of perfect mind and sound memory and calling to mind the mortality of my body, do make and publish this my last will and testament, hereby revoking all former or other wills heretofore by me made in manner and form following that is to say-
I give desire and bequeath to my daughter Henrietta my two negro boys Jacob and Jack to be hers during her natural life and at her decease to be the right and property of my granddaughter Elizabeth Christmas Howard (of Rich'd).
I give desire and bequeath to my daughter Henrietta one cow and calf also one feather bed and furniture. I give desire and bequeath to my granddaughter Rebecca Howard (of Rich'd) one heifer yearling. I do hereby constitute and appoint Stephen Glass to execute this my last will and testament according to the true interest of meaning thereof.
In witness hereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 29th November 1824. Signed, sealed, published and declared Elizabeth Howard
In presence of usW ThompsonR Smith"
Thomas and Elizabeth are not my ancestors, but a descendant of hers, and also a descendant of John Christmas, appeared as close DNA matches, and I have some reason to believe an ancestor of mine who lived in Orange county might have been an illegitimate child of John.
I wondered if anyone is descended from her, and has found any new evidence on who Elizabeth's parents were, either from paper trails or DNA work. Thanks for reading.
Here is John Christmas' wikitree, and his father's.
https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Christmas-97
https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Christmas-98

*Edit*
It appears Richard Christmas died childless and mentioned his niece Henrietta, daughter of his deceased brother James, in his will. Henrietta was also the name of a daughter of Thomas Howard and Elizabeth, though it seems there's no will for James as far as I can see.
https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Christmas-834
submitted by Alastair_the_Bird to Genealogy [link] [comments]


2020.08.16 17:20 BrewersBot Game Chat: 8/16 Brewers (9-10) @ Cubs (13-5) 1:20 PM

Brewers (9-10) @ Cubs (13-5)

First Pitch: 1:20 PM at Wrigley Field
Pitcher TV Radio
Brewers Josh Lindblom (1-0, 5.68 ERA) FSWI WTMJ
Cubs Jon Lester (2-0, 1.06 ERA) MARQ WSCR
MLB Fangraphs Brooks Baseball Reddit Stream IRC Chat
Gameday Game Graph Strikezone Map Live Comments Freenode: #reddit-baseball

Line Score - Game Over

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
MIL 0 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 6 12 1
CHC 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 5 4 0

Box Score

CHC AB R H RBI BB SO BA MIL AB R H RBI BB SO BA
DH Bryant 4 0 0 0 0 2 .182 RF Braun 5 0 1 1 0 1 .207
1B Rizzo 2 1 0 0 2 1 .246 RF Gamel 0 0 0 0 0 0 .151
C Contreras 2 2 0 0 1 2 .233 2B Hiura 4 1 2 3 0 2 .225
LF Schwarber 3 2 1 1 1 2 .238 LF Yelich 4 0 2 0 0 1 .194
RF Souza Jr. 4 0 1 2 0 2 .190 1B Gyorko 4 0 0 0 0 2 .240
CF Happ, I 3 0 1 0 0 2 .310 CF García, Av 4 0 0 0 0 1 .234
3B Bote 4 0 0 0 0 2 .200 DH Smoak 4 0 0 0 0 1 .206
2B Kipnis 3 0 1 2 0 2 .355 C Piña 4 0 1 0 0 1 .333
PH Báez, J 1 0 0 0 0 0 .203 3B Urías 4 2 3 0 0 0 .474
SS Hoerner 4 0 0 0 0 1 .205 SS Arcia 4 3 3 2 0 0 .304
CHC IP H R ER BB SO P-S ERA MIL IP H R ER BB SO P-S ERA
Lester 6.0 9 5 5 0 5 92-60 2.74 Lindblom 5.0 3 5 5 4 8 90-49 6.62
Adam 1.0 2 1 1 0 2 25-15 9.00 Yardley 1.0 1 0 0 0 2 24-14 0.96
Kimbrel 1.0 0 0 0 0 2 15-11 13.50 Williams, D 1.0 0 0 0 0 2 18-11 1.04
Sadler 1.0 1 0 0 0 0 10-7 2.70 Phelps 1.0 0 0 0 0 3 15-9 1.04
Hader 1.0 0 0 0 0 1 25-19 0.00

Scoring Plays

Inning Event Score
B1 Kyle Schwarber singles on a sharp ground ball to right fielder Ryan Braun. Anthony Rizzo scores. Willson Contreras to 3rd. 1-0
B1 Steven Souza Jr. doubles (2) on a sharp line drive to left fielder Christian Yelich. Willson Contreras scores. Kyle Schwarber scores. 3-0
T3 Keston Hiura homers (5) on a line drive to center field. Luis Urias scores. Orlando Arcia scores. 3-3
T5 Orlando Arcia homers (1) on a fly ball to left field. Luis Urias scores. 3-5
B6 Jason Kipnis singles on a sharp ground ball to center fielder Avisail Garcia. Willson Contreras scores. Kyle Schwarber scores. Ian Happ to 2nd. 5-5
T7 Ryan Braun singles on a line drive to left fielder Kyle Schwarber. Orlando Arcia scores. 5-6

Highlights

Description Length HD
Kyle Schwarber opens the scoring with an RBI single 0:50 HD
Steven Souza Jr. lines a two-run double to left field 0:49 HD
David Bote grounds out sharply, shortstop Orlando Arcia to first baseman Jedd Gyorko. 0:12 HD
Cubs celebrate 100 year anniversary of Negro Leagues 1:57 HD
Keston Hiura smacks a 3-run home run to dead center 0:34 HD
Orlando Arcia crushes a two-run homer to left field 0:39 HD
Jason Kipnis laces two-run single through the infield 0:41 HD
Eric Yardley In play, out(s) to Nico Hoerner 0:13 HD
Ryan Braun drives in a RBI single to give Cubs a lead 0:48 HD
Willson Contreras throws out a base stealer at 2B 0:36 HD
Brewers end the seventh inning with a double play 0:31 HD

Decisions

Winning Pitcher Losing Pitcher Save
Yardley (1-0, 0.96) Adam (0-1, 9.00) Hader (5, 0.00)
Game ended at 4:34 PM.
Remember to sort by new to keep up!
submitted by BrewersBot to Brewers [link] [comments]


2020.08.16 17:20 ChiCubsbot GDT: 8/16 Brewers (9-10) @ Cubs (13-5) 1:20 PM

Brewers (9-10) @ Cubs (13-5)

First Pitch: 1:20 PM at Wrigley Field
Pitcher TV Radio
Brewers Josh Lindblom (1-0, 5.68 ERA) FSWI WTMJ
Cubs Jon Lester (2-0, 1.06 ERA) MARQ WSCR
MLB Fangraphs Brooks Baseball Reddit Stream IRC Chat Channel Finder
Gameday Game Graph Strikezone Map Live Comments Freenode: #reddit-baseball Channel Finder

Line Score - Game Over

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
MIL 0 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 6 12 1
CHC 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 5 4 0

Box Score

CHC AB R H RBI BB SO BA
DH Bryant 4 0 0 0 0 2 .182
1B Rizzo 2 1 0 0 2 1 .246
C Contreras 2 2 0 0 1 2 .233
LF Schwarber 3 2 1 1 1 2 .238
RF Souza Jr. 4 0 1 2 0 2 .190
CF Happ, I 3 0 1 0 0 2 .310
3B Bote 4 0 0 0 0 2 .200
2B Kipnis 3 0 1 2 0 2 .355
PH Báez, J 1 0 0 0 0 0 .203
SS Hoerner 4 0 0 0 0 1 .205
CHC IP H R ER BB SO P-S ERA
Lester 6.0 9 5 5 0 5 92-60 2.74
Adam 1.0 2 1 1 0 2 25-15 9.00
Kimbrel 1.0 0 0 0 0 2 15-11 13.50
Sadler 1.0 1 0 0 0 0 10-7 2.70
MIL AB R H RBI BB SO BA
RF Braun 5 0 1 1 0 1 .207
RF Gamel 0 0 0 0 0 0 .151
2B Hiura 4 1 2 3 0 2 .225
LF Yelich 4 0 2 0 0 1 .194
1B Gyorko 4 0 0 0 0 2 .240
CF García, Av 4 0 0 0 0 1 .234
DH Smoak 4 0 0 0 0 1 .206
C Piña 4 0 1 0 0 1 .333
3B Urías 4 2 3 0 0 0 .474
SS Arcia 4 3 3 2 0 0 .304
MIL IP H R ER BB SO P-S ERA
Lindblom 5.0 3 5 5 4 8 90-49 6.62
Yardley 1.0 1 0 0 0 2 24-14 0.96
Williams, D 1.0 0 0 0 0 2 18-11 1.04
Phelps 1.0 0 0 0 0 3 15-9 1.04
Hader 1.0 0 0 0 0 1 25-19 0.00

Scoring Plays

Inning Event Score
B1 Kyle Schwarber singles on a sharp ground ball to right fielder Ryan Braun. Anthony Rizzo scores. Willson Contreras to 3rd. 1-0
B1 Steven Souza Jr. doubles (2) on a sharp line drive to left fielder Christian Yelich. Willson Contreras scores. Kyle Schwarber scores. 3-0
T3 Keston Hiura homers (5) on a line drive to center field. Luis Urias scores. Orlando Arcia scores. 3-3
T5 Orlando Arcia homers (1) on a fly ball to left field. Luis Urias scores. 3-5
B6 Jason Kipnis singles on a sharp ground ball to center fielder Avisail Garcia. Willson Contreras scores. Kyle Schwarber scores. Ian Happ to 2nd. 5-5
T7 Ryan Braun singles on a line drive to left fielder Kyle Schwarber. Orlando Arcia scores. 5-6

Highlights

Description Length HD
Kyle Schwarber opens the scoring with an RBI single 0:50 HD
Steven Souza Jr. lines a two-run double to left field 0:49 HD
David Bote grounds out sharply, shortstop Orlando Arcia to first baseman Jedd Gyorko. 0:12 HD
Cubs celebrate 100 year anniversary of Negro Leagues 1:57 HD
Keston Hiura smacks a 3-run home run to dead center 0:34 HD
Orlando Arcia crushes a two-run homer to left field 0:39 HD
Jason Kipnis laces two-run single through the infield 0:41 HD
Eric Yardley In play, out(s) to Nico Hoerner 0:13 HD
Ryan Braun drives in a RBI single to give Cubs a lead 0:48 HD
Willson Contreras throws out a base stealer at 2B 0:36 HD
Brewers end the seventh inning with a double play 0:31 HD

Decisions

Winning Pitcher Losing Pitcher Save
Yardley (1-0, 0.96) Adam (0-1, 9.00) Hader (5, 0.00)
Game ended at 4:34 PM.
Remember to sort by new to keep up!
submitted by ChiCubsbot to CHICubs [link] [comments]


2020.07.03 23:48 Holesome_chungus NEW! List of banned subreddits part 2

Updated list of all known banned subreddits sorted by reason and alphabetically part 2 (unmoderated and ban evasion). Current as of July 3, 2020 5:32 PM EDT
This is a second thread containing subs banned for ban evasion or for being unmoderated, as Reddit limits you to 40000 characters per post.
 
Unmoderated:
 
Ban or quarantine evasion:
 
* Ban time and reason changed during the purge of subs containing the word 'nigga' or 'nigger'
submitted by Holesome_chungus to reclassified [link] [comments]


2020.06.24 23:40 NamNguyen56 PROCEDURE AND CHALLENGE FOR President TRUMP

PROCEDURE AND CHALLENGE FOR President TRUMP


PROCEDURE AND CHALLENGE FOR President TRUMP
https://preview.redd.it/zuy5o9gugx651.jpg?width=200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ed2ba2cf8e07366d2146406a003e099b09745082
America was in turmoil caused by people going on the streets, protesting, rioting, and smashing. They were pulled by the Radical Democrats, the Black Lives Matter, the Antifa Terrorists, after the death of the black George Floyd, who was taken by a white police officer of the city of Minneapolis (Minnesota), named Derek Chauvin, used knees crushed to death.
The death of a black man at the hands of white police is something people often see happen in the US states. However, because it was less than 5 months before the presidential election, that ordinary thing suddenly became abnormal, great, and the rabid crowd of anti-incumbents against President Trump took advantage of him to tear up. The fault of Chauvin policeman is so cruel, heartless, with blood born to kill people, what is wrong with pulling Mr. Trump out, accusing him of racism, like a female leader in Europe, some officials Christian identity in the Vatican and the United States, a lot of retired or disgraced US generals, two former presidents ... did, ungainly, without cause, if they did not want to use heavier, mean words, stupid.
Mr. Trump is a president who is unlike any president in the 300-year history of building the United States: not compromising with any power in the world as well as in the United States, and the only president who dares to publicly. declared war on the press and the media, which all previous presidents were trembling with, he called them "Fake News", "enemies of the people".
Recently, it was reported that most of the American newspapers were bought out by the Chinese Communist Party, with the scheme to destroy Mr. Trump. As such, he swore at these journalists for a reason. Therefore, he became a thorn in the eyes of evildoers, making them, from Joe Bi Den to Nancy Pest, want to spit at any cost, including kneeling, collapsed, in front of a coffin of a name. Crime.
Not to mention, I realize that recently, every day, in the stack of emails, in addition to the familiar "journalists" of An Nam ‒ which NLGO had once had the honor of touching the neck (such as Giao Chi Vu Van Loc, Nguyen Quoc Khai) - appeared strange authors (perhaps fake names) of anti-Trump articles (in Vietnamese), or at least, very negative about him, causing me to wonder if they were Annam This chew has been bought out by the China Communist Party and the American K-Rats Party?
1►. Merkel, the woman walked in four rows:
For a few days now, it has been reported that President Trump has ordered the withdrawal of 9,500 US troops from Germany (only 25,000) to take to Poland, on the pretext of reorganizing US forces abroad, prompting Ms. Thu General Merkel jumped, howling it was "not acceptable"! Oh that is, do not accept, what can he do? The German Foreign Minister was also worried, confused, and vowed to discuss the matter with the United States. Because, he said, "if the United States withdraws its troops from Germany, its security will be seriously threatened, bringing danger to the US"! Nonsense and unfounded intimidation: in the two world wars, only the Americans brought troops across the Atlantic to save Europe, but why not?
President Trump's decision is based on the reasons that children can guess, let alone the readers in the head have a pile of grit: Mrs. Merkel, this re-educated Eastern German, is very clever, flipping, just like any Which Viet Cong guy, playing a game with the United States, is more true of Mr. Trump. She wears three or four face masks at once, or roughly, swings to three or four strings,
(● 1) plays with the "enemy" of Russia by buying its petroleum through a pipeline. oil from Russia to Germany, worth $ 9 billion, instead of buying from the US "allies",
(● 2) playing with China: not speaking out against China about the Wuhan pandemic, and continuing to do business, to join them,
(● 3) not pay NATO a royalty as promised to Mr. Trump,
(● 4) refused President Trump's invitation not to go to the US for the G7 conference, in late June, on the pretext of dealing with Covid 19 virus, causing him to move to September, and, to embarrass her, invited four new members, including Russia, Australia, India and South Korea, and
(● 5) very important reason for Mr. Trump to be so sensitive and easily offended: she is itchy, and her mouth is from Germany came to the United States, attacked Mr. Trump for violent protests in the United States, but forgot about the terrorist attacks and the murder of people, by the ISIS, which she allowed her to enter and enter Germany in previous years.
With the exception of Merkel, no head of state publicly voiced criticism of Mr. Trump, absurdly, cheaply, although in their country there were also cases of street protests against racial discrimination. In Australia, for example, people oppose aboriginal treatment. In France, according to author Han Giang Tran Le Tuyen, in France (cf. article on June 13, 2020, published in http://xn--hn-vit-mk8bqd.co.uk/ “Looking at the conversations protests in the US, remember the 'protests' in the summer, 1966, in Da Nang ”):
[...] "The Negroes dragged the dead body of Adama Traoré, also a criminal. Because Adama Traoré is not a victim of police violence. In the case of Adama Traoré, a young black man who died after being detained four years ago, was pushed up to become ‛a symbol of police violence in France ', Le Point said in the investigation. : On 07/19/2016 Gendarmerie Gendarmerie, questioning papers Bagui Traoré, is Adama's brother, has committed crimes many times, being sought for extortion. Adama, who was next to him, ran away. Chased, then arrested, then rescued by a fellow accomplice, Adama fled into a citizen's house but was eventually discovered, handcuffed to a car. On the way to the headquarters of the gendarmerie, he lost consciousness, the emergency medical arrived late because he lost, Adama died. Specialists concluded that there was no sign of violence.
The young man, who is notorious for being addicted to alcohol and drugs, was sued for raping a former prisoner. The Adama Traoré family did not accept the results of the doctors, demanding multiple re-examination. Her sister Assa Traoré repeatedly appeared on many television stations accusing the police, saying that Adama fled because he forgot to bring papers. In fact, the Gendarmerie found on Adama Traoré a package of marijuana and 1,330 euros in cash, which was returned to the family. This was the case, but the blacks established the so-called 'Adama Traoré Committee', to 'sympathize with' the death of George Floyd. This means that these people want the deaths of two criminals American and French are both "heroes". "
2►. Mad Dog Mattis and disgraced generals:
This General Mattis, nicknamed "Chaos" (based on a work of Mr. Call Sign Chaos), or "Mad Dog", was chosen by President Trump, when he took office, to be Secretary of Defense. After two years, because of a disagreement with Trump over the withdrawal of troops from Syria, he resigned and set a date for his departure, two months later. Being immediately taken away by Mr. Trump, without giving any more days, means that Mattis was dismissed, not resigned.
In the George Floyd case, Mattis made a statement in The Atlantic, accusing his former boss of causing racial segregation and abusing the army to suppress the protests. Shortly thereafter, three other former generals, all white, including John Kelly (former Head of Staff, White House Chief of Staff, White House, were fired), also voiced their voices behind Mad Dog, defending Floyd and the Black Lives Matter movement, attacking President Trump to dock on two similar "crimes". There was also former General David Petraeus, who had a history of scandal with cats and cats, was dismissed from the Jars by the Jars as commander of the Afghanistan front, and was denied by President Trump to be Secretary of State. occasion of release criticism.
In particular, the former General Colin Powell, 83, (a Fake Republican, meaning Wei Republican, specialized in counter-party critics, exactly like the dishonest senator, called the Republic, Mitt Romney), of Jamaican, Foreign Minister of the Bush era, this man, after being re-elected, did not understand why, sent home to chase his wife chicken, silenced for a long time. I remember my name, my face, and NLGO. Do not know if there is any resentment for Mr. Trump (heard in 2016, also about to run for president under the umbrella of CH, but aiming not to eat, withdraw very soon), but he was very bitter to him. , in the G. Floyd case. Trump condemned everything, and declared to CNN: "I will vote for Joe Bi Den", although the "bi" of the 78-year-old old man, said before and after, specializes in kissing the necks of women, enemies of refugees South Vietnam, not "black" at all!Caused President Trump to fan right away, via a sarcastic twitter (roughly, not verbatim): “Is Powell the father who declared at the United Nations headquarters to tell the world that Saddam Hussein had an arsenal? serial killer chemistry in Iraq, right? ”
Another translated general, Mark Milley, the Joint Chief of Staff (appointed by President Trump) brought the crew, accompanied the Trump delegation (including Defense Secretary Esper) on foot to Lafayette Square, to visit St John's Church, DC, read the reaction of the Fake News, criticized him for obeying Mr. Trump's order for the army to stop the violent protests, so scared, just like the minister Esper, want to spread the pants. , then voiced, publicly "regret accidentally missed Mr. Trump."
Regarding the use of the army to suppress violent protests, according to Dr. Nguyen Tien Hung, in an article read by NLGO this morning of June 14, titled "I've seen 10 times the US president sends troops to the streets", to the BBC from Virginia, USA, in which the author asserts that it is not uncommon for presidents to send troops to quell rebellion. He wrote: "[...] By July 28, 1932 there was real violence. General Douglas MacArthur under President Herbert Hoover's orders sent troops from Fort Meyer in Arlington, Virginia, near our home, across the bridge on the Potomac River to Washington. His aide, Lt. Gen. Dwight Eisenhower (later President) advised MacArthur not to go to the street and should only appoint a senior officer to do this. MacArthur did not listen, and even instructed Eisenhower to follow him immediately.The officer leading the army was General George Patton, followed by five tanks with 300 helmeted men walking on the streets of Washington, using smoke grenades to clear the protest. "So all three famous American generals, Mac Arthur, Eisenhower and Patton, and tanks marched on the streets of the capital to quell violence."
3►. Cardinal Kevin Joseph Farrell and the black crows anti-Trumpist: Last
week, during an online ceremony at the Vatican, Farrell, of Irish descent, who served in Catholic communities in Washington and Texas, is now a Cardinal. The minister and chancellor (?) Of the Roman Church (camerlingue, tasked with managing Vatican properties and convening a new papal congress, when the current pope died). In June 2019, Farrell confessed to having received $ 29,000 from Bishop Michael Bransfield, West Virginia, to repair his room. Bransfield was charged, investigated, and charged with sexual harassment of children, adults, and abuse of public funds, and was stripped of his title.
In a lecture from Rome, Farrell pointed to America in denouncing Mr. Trump, without mentioning his name, accusing him of creating injustice and racial injustice. If Pope Francis did not nod, he said Farrell would not dare to speak. In the days of Obozo and previous Democratic presidents, when the US Supreme Court allowed abortion and favored same-sex marriage, which were contrary to the doctrine, they were strangely silent, just staring at Trump's unfinished border wall, then, to accuse him of all sorts of crimes, while the citadelle wall surrounding the Vatican remains intact. True morality?
And yet, the Catholic DC Archbishop of North America, Wilton Daniel Gregory, also criticized Trump's visit to the Basilica of St. John-Paul II, on June 2, as an unacceptable abuse. received, because he did not respect the equality between people ("I find it baffling and reprehensible that any Catholic facility would allow itself to be so egregiously misused and manipulated in a fashion that violates our religious principles , which call us to defend the rights of all people even those with whom we might disagree ”). Gregory is a black man, people can understand his frustration (called VC pressing). But where did Mr. Trump discriminate against blacks? To make up for the recklessness, Gregory pleaded not to be warned by Trump (cf. Crux). But the Crux newspaper also said they had evidence,that a week earlier, President Trump had sent an invitation to Archbishop Gregory, to the cathedral, where TT would announce the "religious equality" law, but was rejected by the archbishop.
And Archbishop Mariann Budde of Episcopal Saint John's Church, also in Washington DC, after President Trump's visit, shouted at the village, like a careless kiss from Sleepy Joe: "I am outraged" (angry at being touched Pham).
And yet, I had just finished reading a story about an An Nam Mit Diet, meaning yellow skin, named Pham Huu Tam, priest and tu-beep, also went to a church in the diocese of Galveston, TX, along with the crowd of white and black people (even standing in front of the cathedral, taking a picture with a huge black aunt), to attend the Mass commemorating the death of "saint" George Floyd. NLGO wants to ask this LM, if he ever thought about it, let alone talk to the memorial church, even for just a minute, the victims of the victims in the country, for many years were VC killed, robbed, robbed , or are colleagues who fight against them, are they confined like Nguyen Van Ly, or confined like Phan Van Loi? Mr. Tam should remember that business is a cheap farce, only for professional gangs like Bi Bi, Nancy Pest, Obozo, Mit Ram. And you? Give up Eight!Itchy eyes!
In contrast, meanwhile, retired Italian Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò, former Vatican nuncio to the United States, on June 7, 2020 wrote a letter to President Trump, to share the difficulties. in his attempt to "slap the swamp" and advised him to persevere in the fight against "children of darkness": He wrote, "[...] the children of darkness are the Invisible Enemy of all humanity" that of darkness is the invisible enemy of all mankind), and “[...] riots are orchestrated by the children of darkness to serve the purposes of those who would like to see someone elected in the upcoming presidential elections who embodies the goals of the deep state. ” (the riotings organized by the children of darkness serving the ploy want to see, in the upcoming presidential election, one who implements the goals of the underground state).Viganò went on to say that he denounced the Catholic bishops who expressed their support for taking to the streets to oppose ...
4►. Joe Biden and the lame chickens: Lame
chickens, because they can't stand upright, just eat around the mill. I want to say the DemoK-Rats Deo, headed by the Black White Black Sleepy Joe, for the need to vote, in front of the gold coffin of George Floyd, a criminal Black guy (once had a knife in his stomach a pregnant woman to get money), a record in prison, check out, genuinely knelt down, and the black police chief Minneapolis Medaria Arradondo, hugged the coffin crying, like his father died, while Mr. Jar Obozo wiped a tear with his hand, assuming it was flowing. How ridiculous and ridiculous! Seeing want to vomit!
In the House of Representatives, Nancy Pest, wearing red clothes and wearing a white voile scarf like a bride, joined a number of fellow Saturn colleagues (including Chief Clown Chuck Schumer, but I, my eyesight, couldn't find it). in the picture) invite each other to pay homage to commemorate the ghost, Mr. Floyd, ‒ died of the cruelty of the white police officer Derek Chauvin. About Witch Nancy, after more than 8 minutes on her knees, unable to stand by herself, she had to ask a white girl to lift her arms. Shame the flood! Naturally, the criminal Floyd was canonized by Cardinal Farrell, Archbishop Gregory, Former President Obozo, former Deputy Black Petite, President of the Pest House of Representatives, Prime Minister Merkel Four Faces, Former General Mad Dog Mattis, etc. - all because of the need to raid TT Trump.
Not to mention that the puppet Wei Republican, also the patriarch of the Phe Pho, named Mitt Romney, the mean, original Mormon, was also present in the peaceful, or violent protest, by BLM, or Antifa. organization, only God knows. Recently, he announced to the press that Mr. Trump will win the second term. Just heard, some readers on our side seemed to be excited that he had reformed his righteous attitude. As for NLGO, I am skeptical, thinking (maybe wrong) that this Patriarch of the Anti-Pritocracy wants to raise the alarm, rather, remind, let the Turks know to raise awareness, try to disrupt more more.
Not to mention the former President Bush Con, long kept quiet, suddenly imitating Obozo, itchy mouth, losing his status and the principle of "a speechless manner, not criticizing his predecessor", but every former president must holding, from where to jump, criticizing President Trump on Floyd, arguing that he has failed to tackle racial discrimination. Bush I forget the Roney King riots that happened, very intensely, many people were killed and injured, in 1992, in LA, during the reign of his father, President George Bush Father. I did not mention the controversy between Bush Con and The New York Times over his statement that he would vote for Black Ball in November this year, because he did not read the news and the evidence. Still in doubt, to be or not to be?). And because, certainly, in 2016, the whole Bush group voted for Trump, in the words of Bush Father,after "Low Energy Jeb Bush" (ie Bush Em, nicknamed by Trump) was violently attacked by Trump, had to flee to run for people, very soon. NLGO has written an article about the petty feudalism of the Bush family - which at one time I admired and supported the election money (1992, 2000, 2016) for all three.
Pray for God to allow President Trump to be rescued, to have the strength and perseverance in the difficult battle against enemies in the outside, and to re-win the glorious election in November this year.
https://preview.redd.it/vhe0r0osgx651.jpg?width=175&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=9ca56f3f1f07b66aaf5dd58de5d80669c9784a59
submitted by NamNguyen56 to u/NamNguyen56 [link] [comments]


2020.06.18 16:47 efa___ The Unsolved Murder of Malvina Krutz -- In January 1958, an unassuming Indianapolis housewife is found brutally beaten and drowned in her bathtub, but police are baffled by "too many clues" and the identity of the "Bathtub Slayer" remains a mystery to this day.

Malvina Krutz
At just about 5pm on the evening of January 29, 1958, 48-year-old Charles E. Krutz arrived home to 5268 Guilford Avenue, a respectable 1 1/2-story home in a quiet neighborhood in Indianapolis's North Side. He had spent the day caught up in seemingly endless meetings and business calls for his job as a sales manager with the Southern Transportation Company and was looking forward to a home-cooked meal and a relaxing evening with his wife and son. Indeed, ten-year-old Charles Leland Krutz, Jr. -- nicknamed "Buddy" -- had already been home from school for about an hour and a half at that point, and was fully engrossed in the evening's episode of "Wild Bill Hickok."
As Charles crossed the room, he asked Buddy if his mother was home. Although Malvina Krutz was a housewife, she was currently overseeing significant renovations to the family home in the aftermath of a house fire the previous December, so it wasn't unusual for her to dash out during the day to meet with a contractor, pick out a new paint color, or deal with the seemingly never-ending pile of insurance paperwork. But that didn't seem to be the case today. Buddy told his father that, when he had come home for lunch earlier that day, his mother had told him not to worry about his newspaper route that evening, that she would take care of it for him. That's where she had been since he'd gotten home, he assumed.
But any relief that Charles might have felt at this explanation was dashed with Buddy's next remark: "I don't like the looks of the bedroom." When questioned further, the boy told his father that, when he had gotten home from school that afternoon, his model airplanes and other toys had been "in disarray" on and around the chest of drawers in his bedroom. Confused and a bit uneasy, Charles hung up his coat and proceeded to the bathroom to wash his hands, after which he would get to the bottom of what his wife was up to.
But his questions were answered more quickly than Charles could have anticipated. Upon opening the bathroom door, he noticed that the shower curtain -- which was usually left open -- had been pulled shut. With a pit in his stomach, he slid the curtain back to find the lifeless body of his wife, 41-year-old Malvina Krutz, lying on her right side, submerged in water. Her head was towards the faucet, and her legs had been bent at the knees. The bathtub had been filled to the overflow valve and the faucet turned off. The water was still warm when Charles came upon the scene, as was Malvina's body. She had cuts to the inside of her lips and was later noted as having bruises on her left eye, on her chin, on each arm above the elbow, and on her left lower leg above the knee. She was wearing a white "sweater-type blouse" that had been torn in the back, a white lightweight cardigan sweater (also torn), panties rolled down to her knees, and a pair of sneakers. A soaking wet pair of torn women's toreador pants -- presumably removed from Malvina's body after she was submerged -- was later found inside-out on the floor of Buddy's bedroom. The young boy -- who chanced not to have used the bathroom since arriving home at 3:35pm -- had unwittingly been just a few feet away from the devastating scene for well over an hour.
Charles called the police, who quickly arrived at the scene to begin their investigation. As a group of detectives pored over the Krutz home in search of any clues, other officers began questioning Charles and slowly piecing together the events of Malvina's last day.
Nothing about Malvina Krutz's life seemed to portend the brutal violence of her death. Neighbors described her as "typically Southern, of warm and friendly nature," while close friends used words like "forceful," "vivacious," and "active" when recounting memories of the late housewife, church worker, and PTA volunteer. She suffered from a chronic back injury, but that hadn’t seemed to hinder her involvement in community initiatives. Mildred Warning, who had actually been to Malvina's home on the day of her murder, recalled her as "a busy person, active in so many things," and mentioned that Malvina was particularly proud of the work that was being done on her home. In fact, getting the chance to see the progress that had been made on the home renovation was part of the reason Mildred had stopped by the Krutz house in the early afternoon of January 29th, along with Florence Cubert, another friend of Malvina's from Northwood Christian Church.
Mildred recalled, "She had been after us to come and see the work being done on her home. She really was proud of it." But, aware of Malvina's busy and often unpredictable schedule, the friends had called the Krutz home at 12:45pm to let her know that they were coming over. However, rather than hearing her friend's voice on the other end of the line, Mildred was met by a man answering the phone. According to Mildred, "It wasn't her husband. I know his voice. I got the impression this man was a workman." She asked if she could speak to Mrs. Krutz, to which the man allegedly responded, "Well, ah…" A bit puzzled, Mildred asked the strange man, who she told police "spoke courteously," to pass along the message to Malvina that she and Florence would be coming by the house shortly. In response, she heard Malvina's voice call out in the background, "Tell Mrs. Warning that I have to take Buddy to school and will pick her up at 1:30." (Another source reports this statement as simply, "Tell her not to pick me up today.")
About an hour later (1:40pm - 1:45pm), Mildred and Florence arrived at the Krutz home, having ignored Malvina's ambiguous requests. As they were driving up, the friends apparently saw a man run away from the house, get into Malvina's 1955 Buick hardtop, and drive away. This certainly seemed a bit odd, but the women dismissed it as a workman taking the car to pick up building materials, which happened not infrequently. After knocking at the front door and receiving no answer, Mildred and Florence went around to the back door, which they found to be slightly ajar. Letting themselves inside, the two friends waited in the living room for approximately 20 minutes before departing, leaving behind a "chiding note" written to Malvina and a coat for her son.
The only other hint that something strange had been going on with Malvina that day came from Buddy. Despite spending most of the day at the nearby School 55, Buddy had come home to eat lunch, per his typical routine. He had arrived at approximately 12:10pm and recalled that the car was in the garage upon his arrival. As Buddy poured himself a glass of milk and hastily ate the sandwich that had been left for him on the kitchen counter, he heard his mother's voice calling from the bathroom. She told him not to worry about his newspaper route that afternoon, as she would take care of it. Pleasantly surprised, Buddy finished his meal and returned to school. According to Buddy, his mother had still been in the bathroom at the time he had left.
**Several sources refer to Buddy as "the last person to have seen Malvina" before her death. This may be semantics, but I wanted to note that I haven't come across any explicit confirmation that he *saw* her while home for lunch, only that they talked while she was in the bathroom.
In the early hours of the investigation, much attention was paid to the various workmen who had been in and out of the Krutz home over the previous weeks. The home had been damaged in a fire on December 16 of the previous year, and Malvina and Charles had hired the Walter DeLacy contracting firm to oversee repairs. Police identified four particular workmen who were confirmed to have been in the house on the day of the murder, but all four men were cleared after questioning, with the last two released from interrogation at 5am on the morning of the 30th. Undeterred, investigators continued to question any and all workmen who had been involved with the Krutz renovation over the past month and a half. This proved more fruitful; on January 31, an officer reported, "we have questioned all of the workmen, but that doesn’t necessarily mean they are all cleared. There is a difference." He went on to elaborate that one man in particular had been, "'unable to account satisfactorily" for his whereabouts during the slaying.
Another focus of the early investigation was Malvina's car -- a two-tone white-over-gray, hard-top 1955 Buick. Both Buddy and the neighborhood's milk delivery man confirmed that the car was in the Krutz garage as late as noon on January 29th. At approximately 1:45pm, Mildred and Florence saw someone get into the car, back out of the Krutz’s driveway, and head north on Guilford Avenue. Upon further questioning, neither woman was able to identify the man who had been driving, nor could they confidently recall anything about his appearance. However, a 16-year-old neighbor who told police that he also saw this man driving away described the driver as Black.
Despite a police dragnet allegedly being dispatched "immediately" after the murder was reported, it was not until the following morning that Malvina's car was found a mere 11 blocks from her home, left abandoned at 4926 North Meridian Street. The keys were not in the car and were not recovered from a search of the area. Curiously, a workman in the area of 49th and Meridian claimed that the car had been parked there since the day before the murder. Two "domestic servants" employed nearby told police that they had actually first seen the car the morning before the body had been found, and that it had stayed there through the afternoon until the morning it was found by police. It is unclear what to make of these reports, as they are inconsistent with the testimony of Mildred, Florence, Buddy, and others, yet seem to have been independently corroborated by at least two observers. Another domestic servant recalled seeing a "light-skinned Negro" driving the Krutz car to the drop-off point at some point during the afternoon of the 29th, after which "the man got out, wiped off the door handle with a handkerchief and walked south." Newspaper reports describe this story as "unconfirmed."
Back on Guilford Avenue, investigators were undertaking an extensive search of the Krutz home. Robbery was quickly ruled out as the motive; Malvina's purse was found hanging from a doorknob in the house with money still inside, and $260 was found undisturbed in a dresser drawer. Further, Charles confirmed that no jewelry or other valuables had been taken from the home. Three fingerprints that didn't match members of the Krutz family were allegedly collected from two doors in the house, including a "clear fingerprint of a left thumb" taken from the bedroom door. This print was never successfully matched to anyone questioned in relationship to the murder, nor were any matches found in local criminal records, civil files, or in the State Police database.
Perhaps the strangest clue in the case was described as "a yellow pencil with strands of hair embedded in the wood." It's not clear exactly where the pencil was recovered, but investigators remarked that the small cuts to Malvina's forehead and scalp "could have been caused by a pencil in the coat or shirt pocket of the killer." Charles Krutz denied ever having seen the pencil, which was inscribed with "White County REMC, Monticello, Ind.", and it was eventually discovered that thousands of similar pencils had been distributed over the past few years by the Rural Electric Membership Corporation, who used the pencils in their offices and branches. In fact, REMC Business Manager Geraldine Brewer remarked that similar pencils had been passed out at the company’s annual meeting, and that they could also be found in the vestibule of the company's office for anyone to pick up. Although investigators stated that they planned to perform a spectrograph test to identify the source of the hair, any such results were not publicly reported.
With regards to the body itself, "extensive testing" revealed that, despite the positioning of the body and its suggestive state of undress, Malvina had not been sexually assaulted. Her official cause of death was determined as drowning, and Coroner Roy B. Storms hypothesized that she had been struck by a blow to the face or head (sufficient to cause a brain hemorrhage) before being placed in the filled bathtub, after which her lungs filled with water. As Storms described, "She had a blow above the left eye. I don't think she fell into the tub. I think it was murder. She had abrasions on her lip, a small cut. She either struck something or somebody struck her. I think somebody struck her." On February 17, 1958, Storms officially concluded that Malvina had been murdered, ruling out any remaining possibility that the death had been the result of some tragic accident.
Investigators also noted "signs of struggle" in Buddy's bedroom, where, in addition to Malvina's torn, wet pants, two pillows had been found on the floor, covered in blood spots and mucous stains. One pillow was near the foot of the bed, while the other was described as positioned between the bed and the wall "as for a pallet" with a chenille bedspread beside it. Two shag rugs had also been found underneath Malvina's body when it was recovered from the bathtub, leading investigators to hypothesize that an initial attack had occurred in the bedroom, after which the attacker had laid an injured or unconscious Malvina on this makeshift cot before carrying her into the bathroom, during which the attacker accidentally gathered up the rugs along with Malvina's body. Disturbingly, investigators pointed to a chrome towel hanger that had been broken off the bathroom wall and found in the washbowl as evidence that Malvina had likely regained consciousness and struggled with her attacker as he moved her into the bathtub. A blood-stained towel was found behind a kitchen door that lead to the backyard and basement, and Charles told police that Malvina's car keys would have been kept in a "plainly visible" bowl on a nearby kitchen cabinet for the attacker to grab on his way out of the house.
Despite the fact that over a dozen of the Krutz's neighbors would have allegedly had a view of the home on the day of the murder, only one neighbor (the 16-year-old who saw a man driving away) reported witnessing anything unusual. Indeed, even though seven people were known to have been in and out of the Krutz home that day (four workmen, Buddy, Mildred, and Florence), none of them had been seen by any of their close neighbors, with the exception of Mildred and Florence, who had been seen by a neighbor living across the street. Of note, two nearby dogs who were said to "bark loudly at persons in the Krutz yard" were not heard barking on the day of the crime. Even years into the investigation, police maintained that they "have always thought that someone who lived in the neighborhood or who passed by the Krutz house that January 29 may have seen the murder, but no one would come forth with information." However, this sentiment is undermined by a newspaper report claiming that only one of the family's four closest neighbors actually confirmed that they had been questioned by investigators.
Several suspects were picked up, questioned, and released in fairly quick succession over the first few days of the investigation. Their names were not publicly released, so it is not entirely clear how many individual suspects were questioned over the course of the investigation, nor which reports refer to the same suspect being questioned multiple times. One man, described as a "strong lead" was arrested on the night of January 30th, but released after a few hours. Although his identity was withheld, he was described as "a workman who has done fire damage repair work on the Krutz home recently." The next afternoon, a hitchhiker and apparent "ex-convict from Alabama" was picked up in connection to the case, but he was also released fairly quickly. A "62-year-old junk collector" was questioned, as were four paper hangers who had recently worked on the Krutz renovation. However, the fingerprints found in the home were not a match for any of these individuals.
Malvina did not have any known enemies, nor had she, to anyone's knowledge, ever been threated or "bothered with prowlers." Detectives reported that they were looking deeper into her background "on the theory that she might have had acquaintances unknown to her husband." Although two new suspects were reported around this time, it is unclear if these suspects actually did have such a personal connection to the victim. In addition, investigators began to question local sex offenders, with Captain Michael Smiley explaining their reasoning: "we know from experience that a peeping tom can become a rapist and maybe even become a murderer." Police questioned one "close friend" of Malvina's who was confined to Methodist Hospital; although they did not release the woman's name or the reason she was questioned, investigators did report that she "could not shed light" on the case. A "former salesman on fuel saving devices" who had worked with Malvina "about 18 months ago" was also reportedly questioned by police, as was "a man who was with a workman at the time some repairs were made." An unnamed woman was also questioned in early February but was released after passing a lie detector test.
On February 3, 1958, lead investigators Det. Sgt. Earl Booth and Det. Sgt. Stanley McDonald made a statement to the public that "things are beginning to fit together. It's not so confusing now." McDonald further hinted at valuable information that had not been made public, claiming that "things [were] liable to start popping" in the days to come. However, the same day, Chief of Police Frank Mueller made the controversial decision to suspend the investigation for two days so that the detectives involved could attend a trial in nearby Franklin. Mueller framed this brief hiatus in a positive light, responding that it "may be well" to get the chance to "gain new perspective on the case." However, members of the public called for the Franklin trial to be postponed to avoid such a disruption, and felt that investigators were not devoting sufficient attention to the case. One letter to the editor, published in The Indianapolis News, lamented, "Under Reilly [the previous Chief of Police], it was normal for investigators to run around the clock. But in the Krutz case, it appears detectives work on it if there's nothing else pressing -- such as a report for the chief or a trial at Franklin." The letter concludes on an even more incisive note: "Perhaps this case calls for more than two men. Aren't there enough detectives to go around? Or could it be that our homicide division kicks the tough cases around until they get lost? Do they work on a case until pressure dies down and then hope the public will forget?"
Mueller rebutted these claims in an editorial the following day, reassuring the public that "the department has and will continue to check out every available clue" and claiming that "we will solve this case when we get all our evidence and clues sifted down." In response to the outcry over suspending the investigation, Mueller placed Detectives Robert Morrison and John Rudd on the case while Booth and McDonald were out of town. However, both officers were described in newspaper reports as "not homicide men, and inexperienced in that field," raising some concern about their appointment. Shortly thereafter, two Black officers -- Anthony Watkins and Oscar Donahue -- were assigned to the case with the task of interviewing members of the Black community who might respond more openly to questions from investigators of color. The two were highly esteemed by their peers, with one officer declaring, “if [the attacker] was a Negro, the pair would find him." However, both Watkins and Donahue were removed from the case after two days with little explanation.
One other major suspect was being considered in the first weeks of the Krutz investigation, and that was Charles Krutz himself. While it has become almost rote at this point for husbands or boyfriends to be viewed as likely early suspects in murders of women, the optics of this case were particularly suggestive. Shortly after Malvina's death, it was revealed that she had filed for divorce from Charles on January 13, 1958, citing "marital misconduct and gross and wanton negligence of conjugal duties" over a period of over ten years. A hearing was scheduled for January 17 regarding a restraining order, but both Malvina and Charles failed to appear in court, after which the divorce suit was dropped entirely. According to Charles, the couple had mutually decided to reconcile, and this claim was "partly confirmed" by Malvina's lawyer. The lawyer, who described Malvina as "a very frustrated woman," also reported having represented her in a previous divorce action in the early 1950s, although this was also dropped after an apparent reconciliation. As they had failed to appear in court on the 17th, the Krutz couple received a court order to appear on January 30, 1958. Malvina was killed one day before.
Charles did not deny this marital turmoil but was able to provide an alibi for his whereabouts the afternoon of the murder. Although he had spent most of the day at work at the Southern Transportation Co., his job as a sales manager had taken him away from the office for a little over three hours. Part of this time was allegedly spent visiting a friend, Charles Fleck, at his rooming house, as corroborated by both Fleck and Josephine Funke, his landlady. However, officials reported that "our detectives are not satisfied with the stories those two [Charles Krutz and Charles Fleck] gave" and asked both men to take a lie detector test. Krutz agreed but asked if the test could be postponed until after his wife's funeral, when he would be more composed. Furthermore, Patrolman James L. Mullen, one of the first officers on the crime scene, reported two discrepancies in Krutz's statements to police. First, while Krutz initially told Mullen that he had entered the house through the front door on the evening of the 29th, his later statements claimed that he had entered through the back door. Second, Krutz apparently told investigators that, upon arriving home, he had taken off his watch and jewelry, but hadn't yet changed his shirt by the time he found the body and called police. However, Mullen reported that the man's shirt had looked "unworn" when he had arrived at the Krutz home.
Regardless, on February 7, 1958, both Krutz and Fleck were cleared by lie detector testing, with police asserting that "nothing indicates they have any knowledge of the murder." Krutz was questioned for a total of 4.5 hours before being released, and reportedly "expressed a desire to continue helping with the investigation."
In the following days, police released information regarding mysterious phone calls allegedly made to Charles Krutz in the days following his wife's murder. Three anonymous calls had been received, all at night and all following the same pattern: a woman with a "slight southern accent" would ask "Is this Mr. Krutz?" and then break the connection after he responded affirmatively. As the workman who had spoked to Mildred Warning apparently also had a "slight southern drawl," police theorized that the two individuals may know one another. In fact, they even stated that the caller "might be in danger of her life," theorizing that "the woman caller knows the identity of the man who answered the telephone and if he is also the murderer, he may take steps to keep her from revealing his identity to the police." However, if this caller was ever identified, her identity was not shared publicly.
On the morning of February 19, 1958, police reported that Robert Smith, a 37-year-old self-employed painter and paper hanger, had been taken into custody. Smith, a married father of seven with no previous arrest record, had been the very first person questioned in the case, but had been released after providing an alibi. However, police revealed that Smith had been "under surveillance ever since," and that they had eventually received additional information that raised questions about his original story (though they would not reveal the specific nature of this information).Smith had worked in the Krutz house on January 23, 24 and 25, but claimed that he had been working at another North Side home on the afternoon of the murder. However, Det. Sgt. Booth reported that he had "absolute evidence to the contrary that shoots his story full of holes as to the time and places he was supposed to have been on January 29."
One critical inconsistency was an alleged sighting of Smith with Malvina "in her car and in a place of business" about a week before the murder. However, despite three witnesses claiming to have seen the two together, Smith denied that he had ever been in a car with Malvina or driven Malvina's car. It is suggested that the two were likely seen together while on an errand to shop for wallpaper, and Smith's reluctance to admit to being in her company likely had much to do with contemporary racial politics: this was less than three years after the lynching of Emmett Till, and Smith -- a Black man -- would undoubtedly be hyperaware of the danger of admitting to any kind of personal intimacy with a white woman.
When a lie detector test was administered on February 20, Smith was consistent in denying all knowledge of the crime and claiming that he had never spent time in Malvina's car or with her away from her home. Smith allegedly passed the lie detector test "on all points except one -- reports he was seen in an automobile within ten days before the murder." However, despite this one discrepancy, investigators considered the results sufficient proof of Smith's innocence. He was released the same day, with Capt. Smiley stating, "He's free. We won't need him anymore."
Just a few days later, on February 24, 1958, a local painter named Leroy Penick was brought before the Municipal Court in regard to Malvina Krutz's murder. According to investigators, Penick (also a Black man) had been "uncertain about dates throughout questioning," and his account of the day of the crime was described as "a maze of mixed-up time elements." Specifically, Penick claimed that he had spent January 29 painting a barbershop, but the shop's owners maintained that Penick had actually been there the previous day. After administering a lie detector test, police reported that Penick "continued to show deception [when] asked questions about the slaying or the scene of the crime," and he apparently had particularly strong reactions to questions about hitting Malvina and about having driven her car. However, Penick admitted to drinking the night before the test, which may have nullified the results. Furthermore, Det. Sgt McDonald reported that Penick had told him that "he had been arrested 18 times and knew results of a lie detector test won't stand up in court."
Investigators searched Penick's house in the hopes of finding yellow paint matching paint found on a rag left behind in Malvina's abandoned car. No evidence was found during the search (although, in a strange turn of events, police arrived to find the house "nearly 200 degrees" and "ready to burst into flames," eventually discovering that the oven had been left on when Penick had been taken into custody days earlier). A final attempt was made to compare paint on Penick's clothing the paint on the rag, but this analysis was inconclusive. On March 2, 1958, the case against Leroy Penick was dropped and he was released from custody, with no evidence ever directly linking him to the Krutz house in the days leading up to the murder.
Disturbingly, Leroy Penick was arrested four years later in relation to the brutal death of his live-in girlfriend, 27-year-old Carol Jean Martin. Penick originally claimed that another man was responsible for the violent beating, then changed his story to claim that she had accidentally slipped and fallen after arriving home drunk and picking a fight with him. On January 26, 1963, Penick was found guilty of second-degree murder and received an automatic life sentence. Although he was re-questioned about Malvina Krutz's murder, no further evidence suggested that he was connected to the slaying.
Over the following months, new leads in the Krutz case "slowed to a trickle." Even lead investigators Booth and McDonald were forced to admit, "We have come up with absolutely nothing." Desperate for clues, investigators collaborated with The Indianapolis Star, who published an offer of a $5000 reward for information leading to arrest and conviction in Malvina's murder, as well as in three other local unsolved cases. The call was first announced in early April, and the deadline for receiving reward money was set as May 15, 1958. Initially, these efforts appeared wildly successful, with police reporting that most of the clues sent into The Star so far were related to the Krutz case.
A reader reportedly turned in a set of keys that had been found on North Meridian Street, but these were not a match to Malvina's still-missing keys. On April 11, police told the public that they had a "strong" suspect, and that they had received a tip the previous day that "may help to tighten up the network of evidence." A few days later, Inspector Robert Reilly released a statement that "an entirely new and interesting light [had] been shed on the investigation" by a letter received by The Star. He elaborated by saying that this new lead had "led to a belief of foul play" but that there remained "no motive evident." Another report referenced an anonymous call from a man who "knew something about the murder," but he was ultimately found to be unreliable, as he was unable to share any new information. Intriguingly, one of the final mentions of this hunt comes in a response to a previous tip published on April 16: "Attention Writer 8-8-52 -- What is the last name and address of the woman who was surprised by the intruder?"
On June 12, 1958, a 25-year-old man named James D. Rogers walked into the Gary, Indiana police department and turned himself in for allegedly forging checks and committing "several" armed robberies. Quickly, however, Rogers -- a former line cook -- began to hint at an ever darker past. He knew something about the murder of Malvina Krutz, but he wouldn't talk until police brought "a woman friend of his" to headquarters. Officials acquiesced, and Rogers told Gary PD that a friend of his, identified as a "house painter" had been Malvina Krutz's killer, while he had been at the Krutz home during the murder. Rogers was quickly transferred to the custody of Indianapolis investigators for further questioning, and Rogers changed his story: now, he claimed that he was Malvina's killer.
According to Rogers, he had flirted with Malvina earlier in the day at a North Side restaurant, after which she had invited him back to her home. Said Rogers, "I got mad at her and hit her in the side of the head with a clinched fist. She must have fainted because I don't think it knocked her out. I got scared but I tried to bring her to in the bedroom but couldn't. I thought she was dead then and so I half-picked her up and half-dragged her from the bedroom into the bathroom. After I got her into the bathroom, she wasn't even moving so I put her into the bathtub and then I turned the water on. I turned just the cold water on. But she still wouldn't come to." He then claimed to have left the house, driven away in Malvina's car, parked it, and walked 3 1/2 blocks south before "[throwing] the keys in a yard or vacant lot by a big tree."
Although investigators were excited by a new development in a case that was quickly growing cold, most remained reasonably dubious. According to Capt. Smiley, "For instance, he said after the murder he took her car and left in at 49th and Meridian, wiped the car off and dropped the keys by a tree. We have information that children found some keys, but we have never been able to locate the children or the keys. On the other hand, he claims that on the day of the murder he met this woman sometime in the morning at a café at 52nd and Keystone and went home with her. He says he was there until 3 o'clock in the afternoon, that he was in the bedroom with her when the boy came home for dinner. He says she slipped on a robe left the bedroom and fixed the boy's lunch, and then after the boy went to school, she came back." Smiley continued, "There are some things that don't check there. We will continue to question him."
The next day, investigators administered a lie detector test, noting that Rogers had provided inaccurate details about clothing, phone calls, and "many other small points." Further, Capt. Smiley reported that "with the exception of the car keys reportedly dropped near a tree, he could have read the rest of the murder details in newspapers." Indeed, after the lie detector test suggested deception, Rogers revealed that he had falsely confessed. He had been "sick, confused, unhappy and unsuccessful," leading him to implicate himself in the murder. But in reality, Rogers claimed, even though he hadn't committed the crime, he knew who did, and would give the killer's name to police the following day. He did eventually provide a name to police, but the man was quickly cleared. When confronted, Rogers provided the name of a man he now claimed to be Malvina's true killer, but this lead also led nowhere. After Rogers named a fourth alleged killer to police, a man he had apparently met in April, officials were forced to admit that, not only was Rogers "looking less and less like a prime suspect in the Krutz case," it seemed most likely he had no personal knowledge of the crime at all.
A few final clues trickled in over the months that followed. In July 1958, a second-hand tip was received about someone who "had seen a man going and coming from the Krutz home before the murder who seemed familiar to Mrs. Krutz." The suspect allegedly wore clothing "like that of a painter" and had used the Krutz car on occasion. If this man was even identified and questioned, his name was not publicly released. Det. Sgt. Booth used The Indianapolis Star to address readers who had submitted clues in the Krutz case, writing that "certain portions of the letter signed 'XXX' which was sent to the Indianapolis Star now seem to mesh with certain information I am trying to develop at this time," and "urged the writer to tell more about the man wearing gray coveralls.” He also referenced a recent clue suggesting that the slayer had been a "frequent companion of the dead woman."
In December 1960, Det. Sgt. McDonald released a statement regarding a "lost tip" in the Krutz slaying. According to McDonald, the tipster, identified only as "5000," had written a letter to The Star 2.5 years prior, during the period when reward money was being offered. Although it is unclear why this tip was initially overlooked, the full contents of the letter were published as follows:
"RE MALVINA KRUTZ: The same afternoon on the day of this murder I was in my car at 49th & Meridian heading west waiting for light to change when a slim very dark complexioned man with a mustache was locking car north of (Editor's Note: Writer could mean "Parked facing north on…") Meridian on west side of street. He ran like a speed racer south on Meridian just as light was changing. While crossing street he made a movement towards his cap (painter's type) but seems to toss something toward the west. Some days later making the same trip I drove slowly west on 49th as two small boys picked something out of street on south side of 49th west of Meridian. I heard one say 'Someone has lost their car keys.' I remember another car was parked on west side, Mer. about third house down"
Tips continued to trickle in, and Det. Sgt. Booth remained on the case for at least a few years, having allegedly read over all the evidence at least half a dozen times during his tenure. Between 200 and 250 people were interviewed in connection to the case, and even a year later, Booth apparently spent "75 percent of his time running down leads and tips and rechecking details in the case." But to no avail.
Despite the abundance of suspicious characters and suggestive clues, the case remains unsolved over fifty years later. The most complete theories of the case put forward by officials are that the killer "may have been a collector who came to the house on an errand and decided to pilfer the house upon finding the door unlocked and indications that no one was home" or that he "was someone Malvina knew slightly, and whose presence in the house was known to her." However, more troubling questions concern Malvina's behavior earlier in the day. One newspaper report mused over Malvina's strange behavior when her son came home for lunch: "Why did she stay in the bathroom? She had a reputation for being a good mother, always worrying over the welfare of her son. Was the killer in the house at that time?" Other questions concern the man who answered Mildred Warning's phone call: "If the man was the killer, why did he stay so late when he knew the women were coming? Why did he take a chance being seen in Mrs. Krutz's car? Why didn't the two women become suspicious under these circumstances?" Only a few of the many, many unanswered questioned looming over the still-unsolved "Bathtub Slayer" murder of Malvina Krutz.
Sources:
[Due to Reddit's character limit, I'm only linking non-paywalled sources in the main post. The full source list is linked below, and contains citations for all newspaper sources.]
Cavinder, Fred D. Historic Indianapolis Crimes: Murder & Mystery in the Circle City. Arcadia Publishing. 2010.
Krutz Murder Suspect Freed, But Police "Not" Satisfied. Indianapolis Recorder. Mar 8, 1958.
Full Source List
submitted by efa___ to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]


2020.05.03 20:37 did_i_fall_asleep Adolf Hitler was not only an atheist, he was explicitly anti-religion. It's time to stop denying historical fact.

In the long run, National Socialism and religion will no longer be able to exist together. [On a question from C. S., whether this antagonism might mean a war, the Fuehrer continued:] No, it does not mean a war. The ideal solution would be to leave the religions to devour themselves, without persecutions. But in that case we must not replace the Church by something equivalent. That would be terrifying! It goes without saying that the whole thing needs a lot of thought. Everything will occur in due time. . . . The heaviest blow that ever struck humanity was the coming of Christianity. Bolshevism is Christianity's illegitimate child. Both are inventions of the Jew. The deliberate lie in the matter of religion was introduced into the world by Christianity. Bolshevism practises a lie of the same nature, when it claims to bring liberty to men, whereas in reality it seeks only to enslave them. In the ancient world, the relations between men and gods were founded on an instinctive respect. It was a world enlightened by the idea of tolerance. Christianity was the first creed in the world to exterminate its adversaries in the name of love. Its key-note is intolerance. Without Christianity, we should not have had Islam. The Roman Empire, under Germanic influence, would have developed in the direction of world-domination, and humanity would not have extinguished fifteen centuries of civilisation at a single stroke. Let it not be said that Christianity brought man the life of the soul, for that evolution was in the natural order of things. The result of the collapse of the Roman Empire was a night that lasted for centuries.
Trevor-Roper, Hugh, ed (2000). Hitler's Table Talk 1941-1944. Trans. N. Cameron and R.H. Stevens (3rd ed.). New York: Engima Books. LCC DD247.H5 A685 2000. ISBN 9781929631056. Night of 11-12 July 1941; pp. 6-7.
I want to start this post off by stating that the intention here is not to argue or in any way corroborate the claim that atheists are inherently more likely to be immoral, violent, or evil. Only a fool would believe that religiosity, or a lack thereof, can be indicative of one's moral character.
But the historical fact is that Adolf Hitler was an atheist.
Our culture is obsessed with Nazis. They're a media trope, they're ubiquitous in political rhetoric to the point that we have Godwin's law, and they're making a big comeback the world over.
But very few people are really all that familiar with Nazi ideology. Contrapoints has made a few really good videos on the topic, and the one I'd recommend for some background knowledge for this context would be her video Degeneracy. To give you the basic idea, we'll discuss degeneracy. One of the core components of Nazi ideology was that German society was deteriorating or degenerating as a result of what they deemed as "undesirables." These were Jews, queer people, the disabled, etc.
It is the case that Hitler often invoked the Christian God in his propaganda. But this was a political tool. He desired, and probably was obligated, to galvanize the religious right in Germany and incorporate them into his NatSoc movement. But Hitler himself despised these people.
The reason why the ancient world was so pure, light and serene was that it knew nothing of the two great scourges: the pox and Christianity. Christianity is a prototype of Bolshevism: the mobilisation by the Jew of the masses of slaves with the object of undermining society. Thus one understands that the healthy elements of the Roman world were proof against this doctrine. Yet Rome to-day allows itself to reproach Bolshevism with having destroyed the Christian churches! As if Christianity hadn't behaved in the same way towards the pagan temples.
Hitler viewed Christianity as an invention of the Jews. Have you ever heard of the term Cultural Marxism? Yeah, it's an anti-semitic conspiracy theory that states that Jewish intellectuals are infiltrating Western institutions in order to destroy them. People who believe in that stuff think that things like the Queer rights movement, Feminism, racial equality, etc are being pushed into mainstream culture as a way to weaken Western society. It's a direct continuation of the Cultural Bolshevism propaganda pushed by Nazi Germany, in which...Jewish intellectuals were infiltrating German institutions to yadda yadda. Hitler viewed Christianity as another means through which Jewish people destroyed societies. It is the case that Christianity is a descendant of Judaism, and Hitler believed that it was Christianity that led to the fall of the Roman Empire. You can see this in the quote I have at the beginning of this post. Some key elements of the quote include the following.
In the long run, National Socialism and religion will no longer be able to exist together.
I can't emphasize this enough. Adolf Hitler viewed religion as antithetical to his ideology.
The heaviest blow that ever struck humanity was the coming of Christianity. Bolshevism is Christianity's illegitimate child. Both are inventions of the Jew.
Bolshevism is one of the biggest enemies of Nazi ideology. Hitler is describing here his beliefs regarding the conception of Bolshevism. It goes Judaism -> Christianity -> Bolshevism. The arrows don't really do the idea justice: Hitler actually believed that Jewish people developed Christianity with the aim of destroying Roman society. He seeks to eliminate Judaism, Christianity, and Bolshevism.
Let it not be said that Christianity brought man the life of the soul, for that evolution was in the natural order of things. The result of the collapse of the Roman Empire was a night that lasted for centuries.
This is important, because it will lead us to develop the next idea. Adolf Hitler did often touch upon a certain sense of spirituality, but it was with the specific goal of reviving indigenous Germanic mythology, rather than anything close to Christianity (which, I reemphasize: he absolutely despised and believed to be responsible for the fall of Roman society). Why is this important? Because Adolf Hitler wanted to develop a fully autonomous Aryan society, with its own language, genetics, history, and culture. Hitler viewed Christianity as a form of Jewish imperialism. One that wiped out his people's true culture. As an aside, a lot of this stuff would later go on to inspire more contemporary white genocide conspiracy theories. Anyway, here's a relevant quote.
It seems to me that nothing would be more foolish than to re-establish the worship of Wotan. Our old mythology had ceased to be viable when Christianity implanted itself. Nothing dies unless it is moribund. At that period the ancient world was divided between the systems of philosophy and the worship of idols. It's not desirable that the whole of humanity should be stultified—and the only way of getting rid of Christianity is to allow it to die little by little. A movement like ours mustn't let itself be drawn into metaphysical digressions. It must stick to the spirit of exact science. It's not the Party's function to be a counterfeit for religion. If, in the course of a thousand or two thousand years, science arrives at the necessity of renewing its points of view, that will not mean that science is a liar. Science cannot lie, for it's always striving, according to the momentary state of knowledge, to deduce what is true. When it makes a mistake, it does so in good faith. It's Christianity that's the liar. It's in perpetual conflict with itself. One may ask whether the disappearance of Christianity would entail the disappearance of belief in God. That's not to be desired. The notion of divinity gives most men the opportunity to concretise the feeling they have of supernatural realities. Why should we destroy this wonderful power they have of incarnating the feeling for the divine that is within them? The man who lives in communion with nature necessarily finds himself in opposition to the Churches. And that's why they're heading for ruin—for science is bound to win. I especially wouldn't want our movement to acquire a religious character and institute a form of worship.
Wotan is a German name for the Germanic god Odin. While Hitler is expressing here that he does not want to simply revive these old traditions (I'll get to that later), it does corroborate the rest of what I said. Adolf Hitler was a hardcore Scientist. In fact, his ideology was a particularly violent culmination of Europe's developing Scientism, particularly the large body of work that had been done on what we now call scientific racism. One of the biggest influences in Nazi ideology was French author Arthur De Gobineau, who wrote the book Essay on the Inequality of Human Races, which is widely considered to be one of the cornerstones of scientific racism, and was fundamental for the development of the idea of the Aryan master race. To quote the book,
"The word degenerate, when applied to a people, means that the people no longer has the same intrinsic value as it had before, because it has no longer the same blood in its veins, continual adulterations having gradually affected the quality of that blood....in fact, the man of a decadent time, the degenerate man properly so-called, is a different being from the racial point of view, from the heroes of the great ages....I think I am right in concluding that the human race in all its branches has a secret repulsion from the crossing of blood...."
I don't know if there's any historical confirmation on whether or not Hitler read this book, but he practically copypasted his entire ideology from its pages. Pay attention to the word "decadent." This word is used in conjunction with "degenerate," which you'll recall I discussed above. If degenerates were the ones causing European society to decay, said decay was a result of their decadence. Decadence was seen as a sort of Hedonistic indulgence, whether it be through sexuality, substances, or...
Jewishness? Well, yes. The Cultural Bolshevism conspiracy theory insisted that Jews were using art to destroy German society. The Modernist artistic movement was labeled decadent by Nazi ideology, as it marked a transition from art as strictly representational to more abstract modalities. And guess who was thriving in that scene? Jews. So of course Jewishness was decadent; after all, look at their art.
(I know I still haven't gotten to pre-Christian Germanic mythology. I'm getting there).
The point is that Jewish developments were decadent. It didn't matter what they were. Or more often, weren't, since Nazi ideology even blamed Jews for the existence of gay people. And gay people were decadent because...people didn't like them, and their sex doesn't necessarily make children, and children are the future of the Aryan race. Or something. I gotta remind people here that I don't agree with any of this hogwash; I'm just telling you what the Nazis believed. Anyway, remember how Hitler viewed Christianity as a direct construction of the Jewish people? Yeah, so now Christianity and the Church are decadent in the eyes of Hitler. Think I'm making this up? Read this quote.
It is a great pity that this tendency towards religious thought can find no better outlet than the Jewish pettifoggery of the Old Testament. For religious people who, in the solitude of winter, continually seek ultimate light on their religious problems with the assistance of the Bible, must eventually become spiritually deformed. The wretched people strive to extract truths from these Jewish chicaneries, where in fact no truths exist. As a result they become embedded in some rut of thought or other and, unless they possess an exceptionally commonsense mind, degenerate into religious maniacs. It is deplorable that the Bible should have been translated into German, and that the whole of the German Folk should have thus become exposed to the whole of this Jewish mumbo jumbo. So long as the wisdom, particularly of the Old Testament, remained exclusively in the Latin of the Church, there was little danger that sensible people would become the victims of illusions as the result of studying the Bible. But since the Bible became common property, a whole heap of people have found opened to them lines of religious thought which—particularly in conjunction with the German characteristic of persistent and somewhat melancholy meditation—as often as not turned them into religious maniacs. When one recollects further that the Catholic Church has elevated to the status of Saints a whole number of madmen, one realises why movements such as that of the Flagellants came inevitably into existence in the Middle Ages in Germany. As a sane German, one is flabbergasted to think that German human beings could have let themselves be brought to such a pass by Jewish filth and priestly twaddle, that they were little different from the howling dervish of the Turks and the negroes, at whom we laugh so scornfully. It angers one to think that, while in other parts of the globe religious teaching like that of Confucius, Buddha and Mohammed offers an undeniably broad basis for the religious-minded, Germans should have been duped by a theological exposition devoid of all honest depth.
Trevor-Roper, Hugh, ed (2000). Hitler's Table Talk 1941-1944. Trans. N. Cameron and R.H. Stevens (3rd ed.). New York: Engima Books. LCC DD247.H5 A685 2000. ISBN 9781929631056. Midday 5 June 1942; p. 513.
Have I made this clear enough yet? Adolf Hitler hated Christianity. He saw the church as an enemy of his ideology.
Okay, so we've readily established that Hitler wasn't a fan of the church. But I did mention that Hitler and the Nazis attempted to construct a neo-Germanic mythos. And this is true, because it was of dire importance that Hitler have a means utilize what he saw as the Aryan man's innate divinity. The Aryan race needed an origin story that not only separated the Aryan people from the degenerates, but elevated them above the Jews, the Blacks, the Gays, etc. BigThink has a decent article on some of this here. The long and short of it is as quoted.
Wiligut had developed a religion centered on worshipping the Germanic god Irmin. According to Wiligut, German culture dated back to 228,000 BC, a period of time when the Earth had three suns and was populated by giants, dwarfs, and other mythical creatures. He also claimed to be descended from a line of kings from this period of time. It should also be noted that Wiligut was a diagnosed schizophrenic.
Himmler was particularly attracted to Wiligut's brand of paganism, as he disliked the Judaic origins of Christianity. After the end of the WWII, Himmler believed that the "old Germanic gods will be restored." Leveraging his influence and his boss's desire to see a Germanic paganism, Wiligut attempted to stamp out competing philosophies to his Irminism.
In case you don't know, Himmler was one of Hitler's right-hand men. He and Hitler were huge influences on each other in terms of Nazi ideology, and Himmler was one of the key architects of the Holocaust. So we see here a common vein in Nazis and their ideology: Christianity was an aberration of Judaism, and as such must be eradicated from Aryan society.
So, finally, we can circle back to that quote we looked at earlier.
It seems to me that nothing would be more foolish than to re-establish the worship of Wotan. Our old mythology had ceased to be viable when Christianity implanted itself. Nothing dies unless it is moribund.
It's important to note that the definition of moribund is "(of a thing) in terminal decline; lacking vitality or vigor." So, Adolf Hitler was a huge believer in evolution. I am, too, but I'm not a racist about it. Hitler was, though. Point is: He believed that because indigenous Germanic mythology died out to Christianity, that it was bound to die sooner or later anyway. Hitler didn't personally adhere to any kind of Germanic religion, but there were points where he considered it ideologically advantageous to encourage its development over Christianity.
At that period the ancient world was divided between the systems of philosophy and the worship of idols. It's not desirable that the whole of humanity should be stultified—and the only way of getting rid of Christianity is to allow it to die little by little.
This is self-explanatory.
A movement like ours mustn't let itself be drawn into metaphysical digressions. It must stick to the spirit of exact science.
Yeah, so Adolf Hitler was a super hardcore Scientist. I really want to stress here that Scientism isn't just a respect for science. To quote Wikipedia
Scientism is the promotion of science as the best or only objective means by which society should determine normative and epistemological values.
And while I would disagree with this mentality, I wouldn't say that Hitler's Scientism is in any way typical of Scientism today. But it was a very important aspect of Hitler's ideology: Recall all that stuff about scientific racism? It was important that Hitler had a scientific and rigorous foundation to his racist ideas. The reason why is a little involved, and has to do with the Enlightenment philosophies of the time. We don't have time to get into that here so you'll have to look into that on your own. The point is that Hitler's epistemology was deeply and entirely scientific. At no point did religion factor into his personal views.
It's Christianity that's the liar. It's in perpetual conflict with itself. One may ask whether the disappearance of Christianity would entail the disappearance of belief in God. That's not to be desired. The notion of divinity gives most men the opportunity to concretise the feeling they have of supernatural realities. Why should we destroy this wonderful power they have of incarnating the feeling for the divine that is within them?
So this is what I was getting at earlier. Hitler (obviously) was completely enamored with the Aryan race, and he believed them to possess a sort of divinity, insofar as they were elevated and distinguished among humanity: The master race.
The man who lives in communion with nature necessarily finds himself in opposition to the Churches. And that's why they're heading for ruin—for science is bound to win. I especially wouldn't want our movement to acquire a religious character and institute a form of worship. It would be appalling for me.
Fin.
"But look at all these times Hitler talked about God and Jesus!"
Yeah, sure, and Donald Trump loves to give speeches at churches.
This post is long enough as-is, so I'll just go ahead and quote Wikipedia.
In Hitler's early political statements, he attempted to express himself to the German public as a Christian.[10] In his book Mein Kampf and in public speeches prior to and in the early years of his rule, he described himself as a Christian.[11][12] Hitler and the Nazi party promoted "Positive Christianity",[13] a movement which rejected most traditional Christian doctrines such as the divinity of Jesus, as well as Jewish elements such as the Old Testament.[14][15] In one widely quoted remark, he described Jesus as an "Aryan fighter" who struggled against "the power and pretensions of the corrupt Pharisees"[16] and Jewish materialism.[17]
While a small minority of historians accept these publicly stated views as genuine expressions of his spirituality,[10] the vast majority believe that Hitler was skeptical of religion and anti-Christian, but recognized that he could only be elected and preserve his political power if he feigned a commitment to and belief in Christianity, which the overwhelming majority of Germans believed in.[18] Privately, Hitler repeatedly deprecated Christianity, and told confidants that his reluctance to make public attacks on the Church was not a matter of principle, but a pragmatic political move.[19] In his private diaries, Goebbels wrote in April 1941 that though Hitler was "a fierce opponent" of the Vatican and Christianity, "he forbids me to leave the church. For tactical reasons."[20] Hitler's remarks to confidants, as described in the Goebbels Diaries, the memoirs of Albert Speer, and transcripts of Hitler's private conversations recorded by Martin Bormann in Hitler's Table Talk, are further evidence of his irreligious and anti-Christian beliefs;[1] these sources record a number of private remarks in which Hitler ridicules Christian doctrine as absurd, contrary to scientific advancement, and socially destructive.[1][21]
Once in office, Hitler and his regime sought to reduce the influence of Christianity on society.[22] From the mid-1930s, his government was increasingly dominated by militant anti-church proponents like Goebbels, Bormann, Himmler, Rosenberg and Heydrich whom Hitler appointed to key posts.[23] These anti-church radicals were generally permitted or encouraged to perpetrate the Nazi persecutions of the churches.[24] The regime launched an effort toward coordination of German Protestants under a unified Protestant Reich Church (but this was resisted by the Confessing Church), and moved early to eliminate political Catholicism.[25] Hitler agreed to the Reich concordat with the Vatican, but then routinely ignored it, and permitted persecutions of the Catholic Church.[26] Smaller religious minorities faced harsher repression, with the Jews of Germany expelled for extermination on the grounds of Nazi racial ideology. Jehovah's Witnesses were ruthlessly persecuted for refusing both military service and allegiance to Hitler's movement. Hitler said he anticipated a coming collapse of Christianity in the wake of scientific advances, and that Nazism and religion could not co-exist long term.[1] Although he was prepared to delay conflicts for political reasons, historians conclude that he ultimately intended the destruction of Christianity in Germany, or at least its distortion or subjugation to a Nazi outlook.[27]
Look, if what you're saying is contradicting Wikipedia, then you're probably just wrong.
submitted by did_i_fall_asleep to DebateReligion [link] [comments]


2020.05.02 19:03 C5Jones [Kiko of the Night] Arc 1: The Rosemary Inn — Ch. 3 (Urban Fantasy)

Previous/First Metro Acacia Map Mythology References Glossary Next
___
For those of you reading this in the future, today is April 21, 2020.
It’s not called that here, though, because the fae didn’t reset time to mark the birth of a human god. In Ildathaí Standard Time, it’s the year 9844, measured from the estimated sprouting date of the World Tree; to the dwarves, it’s the 1st of Âfvalasirkha, 11369; in the high elves’ solar calendar, it’s the sixth sun of Saille, year 528 of the Third Era. When discussing matters of cross-cultural history, it would only be fair to include all those dates.
So we’ll call it 2020.
Of the infinite Earths, this is one of the closest to yours. Despite its differences, its timeline has run parallel in every way that matters. And through some divine coincidence or joke, every species that’s evolved on this Earth has been documented on yours, even though most of them don’t exist there.
Its history meandered around fairy forests, took a detour through Atlantis, and prayed to different gods than yours for guidance, but hit all the same waypoints, arriving at the same place at the same time so precisely that Kiko has the same smartphone you might, the only difference being that it bears the logo of a barnacle fruit.
The people of Acacia aren’t currently locked in their houses, but for their own reasons, there will come a time when they are.
As we find ourselves, the boy who will give them those reasons is playing a game on that phone, although straining to see it through sunglasses. He needs them so the rising sun doesn’t scorch his eyes, but they match the rest of his outfit to the point where it looks like he’s trying too hard.
Black is his color, and no amount of complaining from his mom will put him off it. Last night’s skinny jeans have been picked up from the bedside and tossed back on, paired with a few pocket chains that do nothing and a t-shirt for Der Ohrwurm, an industrial band you don’t have, but is indistinguishable from fifty you do.
It’s the time before the first bell rings, when he and his friends usually meet in the courtyard of Rofhessa Memorial High to chat. Ailbe gets there first, throwing up a nonsensical salute they invented in their freshman year.
He grins. ”Hail the spider.”
”Hail the spider,” Kiko returns.
Ailbe is a Cat Sìth, which, if you know your Irish folklore, you’ll have heard described as upright black cats “the size of a dog.” He’s the height of a small Great Dane or a normal 14 year-old boy. It is said they can steal souls. He can not. It is said they are witches in disguise. He is not. Chubby, petulant, and usually wearing a t-shirt with a dragon on it, Ailbe is, without a doubt, the least threatening monster alive.
He sits down on the planter wall next to Kiko, and unprompted, opens a bookmarked book, and begins to read:

“In the cold of a midwinter’s gloaming,
Up the Stygian river we roll’d.
With wights to the right of us roaming,
In woodlands of terrors untold.

“Lo! From the dark shores they assail’d us,
With arrows and infernal flame.
On this plane, no Almighty avail’d us,
In the slaughter that ceaselessly came.

“From deck we beheld yon wild hunters,
Drear ashen, dread ebon of face.
Yet in moonlight the sight brought strange wonders,
A savage yet seraphic race.

“As we fled from a fleet devastated,
I ask’d God, Was this part of Thy plan?
Perhaps Ye these cruel beings created,
To punish the hubris of man.
To undo the doings of man.

”That was written by a human soldier in the Second War. It’s about being attacked by the fae at the Afon mouth,” he adds proudly.
”Cool,” says Kiko. “Got one about dying a virgin?”
It’s said you can test a friendship by how much verbal abuse you can dish out at each other and stay friends. If that’s true, Kiko and Ailbe are soulmates. In the six years since they met, they’ve barely stopped arguing to take a breath. But in a sappy moment in eighth grade, they once admitted they would take a bullet for each other. This was never spoken of again, lest anyone think they get along. But it’s secretly there in the background.
As Kiko fills him in on last night's exploits and the grounding that followed, the rest of the group trickles in. These special few consider themselves the next vanguard of the Unseelie: The malign fae, bringers of death in the dark, agents of chaos, walkers of the left hand path.
Known to everyone else as “those weird kids.”
Second comes Kiyiya, who may look like a Sasquatch, but don’t call him that. He’s of the Ste-ye-hah'mah, the night people of the American northwest. They once haunted the forests, blending into them so well they were a mere rumor, and anyone who wandered too close wasn’t coming back. He’s trilingual with English and Yakima, but his native language is Bird, in which he’s so fluent that when he speaks it indoors, people check to see if something’s gotten in the air ducts. He’s already 6’3 at 16, looming over the rest of them.
Next is an otherkin human called Foxglove. She’s recently decided she’s a Leanan Sídhe, a dark muse who gifts artists with genius at the price of their lives. And no one’s told her those aren’t real, because they want to see how far she’ll take it. She’s started wearing ear extensions 24/7 and studying the Black Tongue, which is no small feat: Not only are its tenses difficult, it’s known to make humans cough up blood.
Another girl who usually joins them is absent. ”Where’s Narkissa?” asks Kiyiya.
”In the gym. Morning practice with the dance team,” says Foxglove.
”Nymphs are crazy about dance class, aren’t they?”
”I guess it’s working out for them, though? They’re saying this year’s seniors might get to perform at the Summer Rade.”
Ailbe shrugs. ”Big deal. It’ll be like the tenth time our school’s done it.”
”Shut up, nerd. Of course you don’t care.”
“Exactly, let’s talk about something that doesn’t suck.” He taps Kiko on the shoulder. “How’s your costume coming?”
Walpurgis Night is next week, which is what really matters to people like Those Weird Kids. The fae’s version of it is a mirror image of Europe’s: the same, but the opposite. The Unseelie gather to ridicule the dread St. Walpurga, who took their pagan friends away. They dress up in their scariest traditional costumes, do the dark arts, and burn effigies of nuns. Their magic, by contrast, never works, but it reminds them there was a time when it did, which is what matters in a tradition. And Kiko had been looking forward to it all year. Like every year.
Ailbe taps Kiko on the shoulder. ”How’s your costume coming?”
”It’s not anymore. I’m grounded.”
“Aww, come on! You’re telling me you won’t even try to sneak out? No one’s allowed out on Walpurgis, but some-fucking-how, everyone gets there.”
Kiko usually included. The routine is that his parents forget what night it is, he sneaks out, and they ground him for a month when he comes back. This time, he just blew it too early. ”Mom even said she’s taking the next day off work so she can stay up all night and make sure I don’t leave,” he groans.
”Can I have it?” Ailbe probes.
”Yeah, but you’ll have to finish it yourself. I can’t look at it anymore.”
A fifth voice speaks up from behind them. ”Can you help me make mine?”
Tina is the daughter of a brujo negro and a succubus. Her stubby horns sprout from brown skin with a clay-red tint, over a face that’s a little odd, but you know what they say about exquisite beauty, strangeness in proportion, and there being neither or both. She’s practically a lolita goth fashion plate in her lacy dress and heart collar, with black lipstick—the expensive kind that doesn’t flake—and a flawless cut crease. She wears a night-blooming flower in her hair: if not real, then convincing enough. No one knows how much free time she has or how loose her parents are with the credit card.
”Oh, didn’t see you there. What are you going as?” Kiko asks.
“A hellspawn! A full one, instead of just half.”
He considers it. ”I can’t be out of the house after school, but I’ll ask mom if you can come over.”
”Will you need any fake blood, sculpting gel, or anything like that?”
”I have it. Just let me know when you’re thinking, and I’ll text you the address.”
”Thanks! See you around!” She bats her eyelashes at him, then goes off to do whatever cool thing she must be doing, as mysteriously as she came. Cheery but elusive, her very presence seems calculated.
”Why her, but not me?” Ailbe says.
”Are you deaf? And you know how I am about costume makeup.”
Foxglove nudges Kiko. ”I see that smile. Are you into her?”
”No.” he says. It’s admiration, not adoration. Part of him wants to be her, and it’s locked in constant combat with the part that wants to be an assassin.
”Your loss,” she says, lost in dreams. ”How do you think my name will go when we’re married? Foxglove López de Lilit? They might not be from the same culture, but I think it has a… je ne sais quoi.
“Pfft!” Ailbe almost spits out his soda. “Are you still doing the Foxglove thing?”
“What ‘Foxglove thing?’ That’s my name.
“Oh really? Because your school ID says—”
“Don’t. Say it.”
“It says—”
“Ailbe, I swear to the gods—”
“You would, Faith.
“Shut your fat mouth! Foxglove is my true name!”
“Since when?!”
”Since, uh, five weeks—”
Ailbe doesn’t let her finish. ”You don’t just shit out a true name!”
“Yeah you do, that’s how you get one! It’s not the one your parents give you, it’s the one your heart calls out for!”
”Exactly! You have to go into a trance or something, or someone has to bequeath it to you! Yours didn’t come to you, you just think it sounds cool!”
”How do you know it didn’t?”
”When you get it—if you get it, ‘cause most people don’t—it’s not gonna be something edgy. And besides, you don’t tell everyone either! That’s how they get control of you!”
”You guys, enough!” Kiko pipes in. “That’s not a thing. Names are a construct, and every race and language can have a different one. That could be a thousand names for the same shit. Even if it comes to you in a dream or whatever, how do you know your alphabet’s spelling of it is truer than the one in Elvish or Chinese? And if someone ‘bequeaths’ it to you, how could they then just turn around and control you with it? That’s cheating.”
He picks up a small stone from the planter. ”This rock’s name is now Steve. Does that mean I have power over it?”
Imperceptibly, the stone vibrates.
“Whatever, buzzkill,” says Ailbe. “You’re just salty ‘cause your name sucks.”
”What’s wrong with my name?”
“Ooh, I’m so scared of Kiko. Kiko, shadow hunter. Kiko of the night.”
“You’re one to talk, Ale-bee.”
Ailbe groans. It’s pronounced Alvah, because Gaelic never learned that letters mean things, but everyone says Ale-bee. He eventually got so tired of correcting ten people a day that he just went with it, but each time still feels like a little insult.
Kiko tosses the stone back. ”You don’t need some stereotype name to be a fae. Names get their connotations from the people who have them.”
Those Weird Kids have arguments like this every day. They haven’t caught on that the reason the other students avoid them isn’t fear.
Ailbe’s a typical “magic lawyer.” He reads too many sword and sorcery books—nonfiction ones, that is—even by Kiko’s standards. He can argue in circles for hours about how Spell X supposedly worked or the different types of cantrips or how basilisks fuck. He thinks we should go back to the old ways, although no one’s seen him away from his phone for more than ten minutes.
”What’s with you, anyway?” he says. “It’s like you don’t even care about magic, or history, or your heritage. You must live in a boring world.”
Kiko’s growing irritated. “And you take ‘em way too seriously.”
”I don’t get why you don’t. You come from the coolest unseelie culture of all.”
”No. My ancestors did, sure, but I don’t have any connection to them. And it wasn’t cool. The weapons were, and the house system and the folk heroes and the temples, but that doesn’t mean I have to believe the stupidity they did.”
“What?! Why?!”
”Why would I? I would’ve been nobody back then.”
Ailbe deflates. ”You don’t know that…”
”Yeah, I do. I’m a boy who can’t fight, and I’m not from some noble family, or I wouldn’t’ve been abandoned in the middle of nowhere. So back in the day, I would’ve been a servant or cannon fodder in some war.” He clenches his fists. ”You know what? If gods only exist ‘cause we believe in them, I hope ours fuckin' starved to death!”
Possible. No one’s heard from her in a while.
Ailbe looks baffled and betrayed. ”Then why were you hailing her?”
“Bro, I was being ironic. None of us still follow her. I’ve never met anyone who does.”
“What about the ones underground?”
”What, all ten of ‘em? The cave cities sucked, that’s why we left. Only the far right—like, the ‘let’s go back to having slaves’ people—miss it.”
“You don’t have to be like that to respect the old ways!”
”Do you know how goofy you sound? It’s like those metalheads who actually worship whatsisface. Red dude from Christianity. Name like a fabric. No one likes those guys. You always say religion is bullshit, so don’t go around having one. Leave the old ways where they belong.
”Plus, I don’t even know if I am that kind,” he adds with a sigh.
”Hmph. Whatever you are, you’re a shit one.” Ailbe smiles, and Kiko knows he’s joking. They say worse things to each other as casual banter. But he has no idea how deep it cuts.
Kiko Sesay is a dark elf.
He could very well be a drow, but just as likely not. He could also be a Norse dökkálfar, or a descendant of a cursed light elf, or a new crossbreed as yet unnamed. If only he knew his parentage. But he doesn’t—just one of many mysteries about him, and many more to come. And not that it would matter. The difference between the types has been all but lost. Nobody’s a pureblooded anything anymore.
His adoptive parents are human, as you can tell by the name: No apostrophes, pronounced how it’s spelled. Many days he forgets he isn’t one, which is why he tries so often to remind himself.
He runs his fingers through his white cornrows, a style his mom does for him. He doesn’t know if he likes it. It suits his facial shape, but not his aesthetic. He doesn’t know if it’s him.
Kiko is an array of colors that don’t make sense on a mammal. Charcoal skin that shines blueish like a bottle fly in direct sunlight. Vermilion eyes that glow a little when his night vision activates, or when he’s focused really hard on an algebra test. Platinum hair. But he’s black, so as far as humans are concerned, he’s black.
But it’s been fine: A childhood of soccer games watched over dad’s shoulder, cookouts, sleepovers with cousins, and not a single blood sacrifice. He was raised with actual affection. He’s never once had to watch for a knife in his back. His extended family is too big to count, even if none of them are fae, and close-knit in a way that was forbidden in the caves. In fact, it’s been pretty good.
But that’s why he doesn’t know what he is. Or what he should be.
Is "assassin" even a full-time job? he wonders. With one king ruling for the country’s whole history, it’s not like there are aspiring politicians knocking each other off for power. Who else would hire an assassin? Probably the mob, but he hasn’t seen any evidence of the cool kind of organized crime in Acacia, the kind where bosses wear sharp suits and ride in limos. The drug gangs of the South End slums are a bunch of meatheads with no class, beneath the notice of an elite trained killer like himself. Like he would be. Someday. Maybe.
Plan B was being a bounty hunter, except that’s well into the realm of things for which one must be swole. It takes size and strength to subdue a guy with prison muscles and bring him in alive. Oh yeah, and there are no bounty hunters in Ildathach. All criminal capture’s handled by Milipol, and there’s no way he’s joining them.
Deep down, he knows he’ll end up going to college, doing something normal, pleasing his family.
Ailbe’s right.
But that doesn’t mean he has to stand for this.
___
Author notes:
  1. Crits welcome on this one. I was afraid it was an expo dump that would bore readers, but if you've reached this point, I guess not. A beta reader said that although she enjoyed it, some parts could use rephrasing, although she didn't know what, so if anyone has suggestions or opinons, I'm always interested in refining it.
  2. The first 3 updates are sort of a pilot. (And by the time we get to the next one, all the unanswered questions in ch. 1 will make sense.) After that, I'll work out a schedule, but word count per update will decrease: This one and the next, in particular, are over 3k, but after that, following ones will be between 1k and 2.

Next
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2020.04.30 13:07 C5Jones The Ildathaí Dictionary — A Work in Progress

This is a glossary of mythology references from my redditserials series Kiko of the Night—and any possible spinoffs—which will be updated continually as installments come out, until either this post is archived or the serial has a website.
___
Adroa: East African folklore. The creator god of the Lugboa people of (mostly) Uganda. He could manifest in two forms, good and evil, creator and destroyer. Creator is tall and paper white, Destroyer is short and ink black. Also, a town bordering Acacia to the east that’s named after him, pop. 113,780.
Barnacle Fruit: Scottish folklore. An allusion to the tall tale that there was once a tree that grew barnacles of enormous size, which would drop into lakes and hatch into geese.
Brujo Negro: Real life. A (male) practitioner of Mexican black magic. Like any other type of witchcraft, Brujeria comes in all types and shades of morality. Brujos negros seem to be the edgelords.
Cat Sìth: Scots-Irish mythology. As described in-story, black cats the size of big dogs who may have been witches in disguise and could supposedly steal souls. Downer alert: This was the reason a lot of cats were sacrificed in medieval Ireland.
Coyote: Native American folklore. The trickster archetype. Makes Loki look boring. The amount of lore and stories about this dude is unbelievable, and I frankly can’t cover them without doing a disservice to the natives. The one in Kiko's class is just one of many, though, and that's just his nickname.
Dökkálfar: Norse Mythology. Black elves, the basis for modern portrayals, although not much is known about them aside from they lived underground and were supposedly evil. Some scholars doubt whether they were even supposed to be elves.
Drow: Dungeons & Dragons. For anyone unfamiliar with tabletop game lore (not many, if you're reading an Reddit serial), the Drow are a race of coal-black elves with funky-colored eyes and white hair. Like Kiko, they tend to be short and thin. They come from a network of caves called the Underdark, where they worship a spider goddess and base their society on social darwinism, slavery, and most shockingly, matriarchy. Considered some of the biggest assholes in fantasy.
Elf: European folklore and fantasy. Like you, but better.
Fae/Fey/Faerie/Fairy: European folklore and fantasy. Let’s just clear up a misconception: This is an umbrella category for any nonhuman that appears in European mythology, which is how it’s used here. It is not exclusive to little people, elves, the hot ones, or even the humanoid ones. It’s an ongoing debate between Ildathaí progressives and conservatives whether nonhumans from other continents should be called fae.
Futakuchi-onna: Japanese mythology. A woman with a second mouth on the back of her head that uses prehensile strands of hair as tentacles to eat, usually against her will.
Ifrit: Arabic mythology. A subtype of fire djinn, sometimes called an evil demon, although canonically, they’re chaotic neutral like most supernatural creatures. Their true forms were made of flames, but they were able to shapeshift into humans.
Huldufólk: Icelandic folklore. Not directly mentioned, but this is what Sigríður is. A type of elf that lives in a parallel world and can turn invisible at will. Belief in them is still common in Iceland, to the point where construction projects have been stopped to avoid disturbing their habitats.
Human: Real life. An ape-descended hominid neither impressive nor unimpressive, neither special nor negligible, neither a high race nor a low one. The middle-class white people of species.
Ildathach: Irish folklore. Short for Mag Ildathach—the multi-colored plain—one of the names for Tír na nÓg, the Celtic otherworld. (Seriously, The Irish, get it together, that capitalization is buckwild.) The ancestral home of the fae, supposedly accessible either by hidden portals or “over the sea.” Or in other words, fairyland. Denonym, Ildathaí.
Kappa: Japanese folklore. A malevolent river monster that looked like a humanoid turtle.
Leannán Sidhe: Irish literature. …Were made up in the 1880’s by W.B. Yeats.
Moon’s Day: Archaic term. Monday.
Nóta: The basic unit of Ildathai currency, equal to US $1.43. Pl. Nótaí. Symbol:
Rofhessa, Ruad: Irish mythology. Another name for An Dagda, one of the prominent faerie and druid gods, dad to a lot of the prominent figures in the Celtic pantheon. Basically the Irish Odin. As for the “memorial,” remember what Kiko said that gods die when people lose their faith in them…
Seelie/Unseelie: The two broadest categories of fae. The Seelie were benevolent, friendly, or at least, generally non-harmful to humans unless wronged, and associated with spring/summer and the sun. The Unseelie were wild cards who would fuck your whole shit up for fun, and were usually associated with the darkness, fall/winter, and witches—chaotic neutral at best. Ildathaí fae don’t think of themselves this way, because why would they base their identities on what one out of thousands of races think of them? They’re not used seriously these days, unless you’re Those Weird Kids.
Selkie: Scottish folklore. A shapeshifter that could turn into a seal. Said to have a weird obsession with forcing human women into marriages.
Signifying Monkey: African-American folklore. Another trickster archetype like Coyote, but a much dumber one. He would sit in a tree and talk a mountain of shit, but whenever he got into a fight with the other animals, they’d absolutely wreck him. Revived in popularity in the 20th century by comedian Rudy Ray Moore, in just about the most NSFW skit ever put to record. It’s on YouTube if you want to look it up yourself.
Ste-ye-hah' mah: Yakima folklore. Big, furry wild men who lived around Puget Sound. Also called Siatco, the Night People, or if you’re an 1800’s idiot, Stick Injuns. The myths about them are strangely close to the faeries of Europe: Nature spirits who lived deep in the woods and would play tricks on people, lure them into the forest with strange noises, or hypnotize them—or do much worse things like attack or kidnap them if they felt like it—and kill anyone who did them dirty. And yes, they were said to speak the languages of the animals. Singular, Ste-ye-hah'
Succubus: Judeo-Christian demonology. She succ while u fucc.
Svartálfar: Norse mythology. Another type of dark elf, separate from but functionally identical to the dökkálfar.
Tylwyth teg: Welsh folklore. A Welsh faerie. That’s about it.
Vilenjak: Slavic folklore. Also just another name for a faerie. Specifically, an elf, although it’s sometimes also used to refer to the male version of the nymph-like nature spirits called vile.
The Veil: Various folklore. What separates the human world from the otherworld. Some version of this is found in almost any culture with fae or spirit world myths. Side note: Twelve slave ships really did vanish in a hurricane on that date, but it was a little south of the Bermuda Triangle.
Walpurgis Night: Real life. Celebrated April 30th in Germany and Scandinavia, a holiday in honor of Saint Walpurga (710-777 A.D.), who converted … pagan Germans to Christianity, then … (But five other people in her family were sainted, so there may have been some grandfathering going on.) Contrary to what Harry Potter and Madoka Magica might tell you, she was one of the foremost witch hunters, not a witch. However, Walpurgisnacht is also known as Witching Night because that’s what it was back when it was a pagan holiday, as many holidays were. Celebrations involve dressing up in costumes to ward off evil spirits—it’s very much like a second Halloween—dancing, and lighting bonfires to symbolically burn witches.
Wata: Yoruba and voudoun folklore. Short for Mami Wata—Mother Water—a West African/Hatian goddess often portrayed as a mermaid. Also the guitarist from Boris. I met her once. She didn’t speak English, but seemed pretty cool.
Wolpertinger: German folklore. A small furry mammal with the limbs of any other number of creatures depending on the teller, but most commonly depicted as a rabbit with antlers and bird wings. I could’ve just used the more recognizable jackalope, but I mentioned jackalopes in my previous novel, and I have a strange aversion to using the same trope twice.
Wulver: Shetland Islands folklore. Wolfmen, but nice. Timid and reclusive, never attacked humans, lived on fish.
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2020.03.09 23:33 Elvis_Interstellar Updated list of all known banned subreddits sorted by reason and alphabetically part 2 (unmoderated and ban evasion)

This is a second thread containing subs banned for ban evasion or for being unmoderated, as Reddit limits you to 40000 characters per post. Link to main thread
 
Unmoderated:
 
Ban or quarantine evasion:
 
* Ban time and reason changed during the purge of subs containing the word 'nigga' or 'nigger'
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2020.01.18 15:17 s810 Old Austin Tales: Attack of the Airships - Spring of 1897

Lord, don't I wish I had a photo of the subject of today's story. You'll have to bear with me. Lots of descriptive 19th century newspaper articles coming through.
Today I bring you some Austin UFO stories from 50 years before the Roswell incident of 1947. I've seen and participated in a few discussions about this topic here before, but some new shit has come to light, so I've got to get this one off my chest. The acronym "U.F.O." gets taken for granted as something extra-terrestrial but it really means anything flying that's unidentified. Besides something alien, in today's world that could be anything from a weird looking drone or an Air Force test plane, or even a Chinese lantern.
There comes a time when technological progress advances to a point where the materials needed to invent something new and great are available to many people at once, so you end up with different people inventing things like the telephone, or the television, at roughly the same time. That's also kind of what happened with human flight. A few years before the Wright Brothers glided over a beach in North Carolina and before the Germans perfected the Zeppelin, there were apparently a few different people flying around the country in what was at the time referred to as "mystery airships". By most accounts these were cigar shaped craft, sometimes with elaborate sails or wings mimicking those of many different bird species, that could carry passengers and/or cargo flown over great distances. If you saw one today you would probably call it a blimp with wings, but it was really more like a floating paddleboat. Back in the late 1800s the thought of attaching a mechanical engine, whether steam or oil powered, to a balloon to guide it places was experimental and revolutionary. Different types of airships began test flights over Europe in the 1860s and by the 1880s there were Americans doing it too, although it would be more accurate to say these early inventors had very little idea what they were doing at all. They were basically trying out different forms of balloons with accessories more than inventing the blimp. But one thing is for sure, when these things would "fly"/float over anywhere near a populated area they would scare the crap out of the public and become the talk of the area for weeks. These were the UFOs of their time; some people thought they were from Mars. 123 years ago these things captivated The City of Austin when they began appearing over our violet crowned skies. There were more than a few sightings, locally, statewide, and nationally, and the Statesman of the time covered most of it. One Statesman reporter even had a sighting himself. The Legislature was freaking out over how to regulate them, and there was an incident at The Driskill. But as usual I'm getting ahead of myself.
The most famous incident during the "mystery airship" wave of 1896-1897 is probably the Aurora, TX UFO incident. To quickly sum it up, an airship with an alien visitor on board is supposed to have crashed after hitting a windmill in the small North Texas town of Aurora on April 17, 1897. The "martian" was said to have died from the crash, and was buried in an unmarked grave in the local graveyard.
That's a very important date to remember: April 17th, 1897. The following day on the 18th, the Statesman announced a "Strange and Startling" discovery. A few years ago Michael Barnes did a writeup on this in the Statesman, from which I quote:
Balloon? Airplane? UFO? What flew over Texas — including Austin — with searchlights in April 1897?
Bob Ward of the Travis County Historical Commission drew our attention to this airborne mystery. We’re not suggesting aliens, but the reports fit the definition of an “unidentified flying object.”
A headline in the April 18, 1897, Austin Daily Statesman shouted “Strange and Startling: A ‘What Is It?’ Serenely Sailing over the Blessed Long Star State.” Texans in Sherman, Fort Worth, Hillsboro, Marshall and Paris spotted unusual objects in the night sky. This was six years before the Wright Brothers took off from Kitty Hawk, N.C., and 50 years before an unexplained object crashed in Roswell, N.M.
On April 26, the Daily Statesman reported that airship had made another appearance, this time behind Mount Bonnell traveling north. “At least, three young men who were camping up on Bull Creek at Huddle’s Point say they saw it. Messrs. Geo. Powell, Ted Tobin and Jas. Caldewell went up the lake Saturday afternoon for a couple of days’ camp and pitched their tents. ... About 3 a.m. it began to rain and the men were compelled to get up and fasten the tent. It was at this time they saw the mysterious aircraft. They claim it was in sight fully 15 minutes and are positive they could not be mistaken. At intervals of every few seconds, it would throw its searchlights, and the boys say the light looked as big as four ordinary arc lights.”
Of course, those interested in UFOs have not let the subject of the 1897 aircraft go. An April 15, 2016, story in the Fort Worth Star-Telegram reached back to revive the tale of an airship that crashed into a windmill, “killing a spaceman,” in the North Texas town of Aurora on April 17, 1897. (In other words, before the Austin sighting.)
The town recently celebrated the crash with an event called the Aurora Alien Encounter with talks and shuttle tours, including a stop at the cemetery where the alien nicknamed “Ned” was supposedly buried.
This 2017 Statesman article was I think the first time I had heard of this story. So the same night a UFO allegedly crashed in Aurora, airship(s) were seen all over North Texas. The Statesman of 1897 reports on that, but then eight days later comes another report of some boys seeing an airship near Mt. Bonnell. Well come to find out that was only one of many local airship stories dating back to that Spring and Summer of 1897 in the old Statesman archive, and not even the best one in my opinion. Allowing for the yellow-journalism tendencies of The Statesman and newspapers in general at the time, some of the reports are made with intricate detail by otherwise credible people from all walks of life, while others seem obviously a hoax too fantastical to be believed.
I'm just going to go through Statesman articles in chronological order. We will start in 1896 with a bit more backstory:

May 31, 1896 - A New Flying Machine

Prof. Samuel P. Laughley's Successful Flying Machine.
Professor Langleys has invented a flying machine which is a success. At Occoquan, Va.. near Washington, D. C. the Smithsonian Institute Professor recently tested this machine to his complete satisfaction. The machine rose 200 feet in the air and flew steadily for half a mile. Fuel in the engine then gave out and the machine sunk gently to the ground. The flying machine carries a small steam engine of one-horse power. The whole contrivance weighs twenty-five pounds. Its light steel frame work holds extended horizontally three sheets of thin canvas. one above the other. The length over all is fifteen feet. The engine runs two propellers.
The machine could fly 100 miles, or even a much greater distance with a sufficient, supply of steam. But the small engine employed is not of the condensing pattern and has no means of using the same water over again.
...

October 2, 1896 - Flies Like a Bird

Remarkable Success of the Lamson AirShip at Portland, Ma.
Big machine rises steadily to an altitude of six hundred feet and then gracefully settles to the ground again. A New York Sun special from Portland. Maine. Charles H. Lamson performed a feat here the other day practically demonstrating that a large airship or kite capable of carrying a man can be floated successfully and steadily. He raised his ship with a dummy man on it 600 feet. The retaining rope broke when the ship was at that altitude. Had it not been for this break, Mr. Lamson would have sent up a man to navigate his ship. As it was, W. A. Eddy, of Bayonne, NJ. an authority on aerial experiments, declared that Lamson'a achievement was the greatest step toward solving the problem of aerial navigation of the age. Two records, at all events, Lamson made. He flew the largest kite or airship ever floated. He carried by mean of this kite the heaviest weight to the greatest altitude on record. Tbe kite which made the flight is an invention of Mr. Lamson and is called "The Lamson Airship." The kite, when in the air, resembles two large, oblong j boxes parallel to each other and attached to each other in the middle. It took 15 men to carry the kite or ship into the field from which it was to be sent up. The cord tested to a pull of 500 pounds This was made fast to a reel and four men attended to it. About 400 feet of the rope was run out along the ground, and at a signal from Mr. Lamson the snip was released. It quivered a m ment and then steadily rose skyward. Seated on the car of this ship was a dummy weighted to 150 pounds. The ship rose to an altitude of 600 feet, and was rising steadily, "when, with a sudden gust of wind, snap went the rope, showing what a tremendous pressure was brought upon it by the soaring of the ship. The ship floated out a half mile and descended as easily and gracefully as it went up. Had a man been in the car he would not have been harmed in the slightest.
...

November 23, 1896 - An Airship Sure Enough!

Frisco lawyer says one is perfected and has had a successful trial.
San Francisco, Nov. 22. The Chronicle printed a story which would indicate that the airship in practical form is at established fact. About 1 o'clock last Monday morning. the inhabitants of Sacramento who astir at that hour claim to have seen an airship passing rapidly over the city (Some merely say they saw a bnght light, while others went so far as to say they saw a cigar shaped flying machine and heard human voices from it.) The residents of Oakland also say they same the same sight. The story of the mysterious airship ha been told all over tin state and has created considerable amusement, as it was generally believed to he a hoax.
...
So you can see that at least a few people were experimenting with airships in various forms at that time. This brings us to 1897, and the first incident mentioned in the 2017 Statesman article. This was written the day after the Aurora incident but doesn't mention Aurora by name.

April 18, 1897 - Strange And Startling

What is it serenely sailing over the blessed Lone Star State? Be it a big airship or something else seen in the heavens at various North Texan points.
Keep a Watch Out Here. Of late strange sights have been witnessed in the heavens and some day ago.
The Statesman obtained a dispatch saying that an airship or something of that sort had been seen sailing over Oklahoma. Now the mysterious aerial craft has been seen at various points in Texas and from all accounts it is a fast sailer. Friday night at Sherman, Mr. W. S. Hellyer, cashier of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad, saw a mysterious oval-shaped object of large proportions plass over the moon. On the same night, Conductor W. M. Honney of Fort Worth, his wife and mother saw a strange object pass over the city.
On the same night Hon. J. S. Bound of Hillsboro, on his way to visit a sick friend, had an experience he will not forget soon. He was jogging alone quietly, when suddenly his horse whirled around and came near overturning the buggy. There was a brilliant light, as if coming from an arc light. This light, he says rested on him less than a minute and then he saw it gliding over a field nearby. It then turned upward and he watched it until he says it must have been 1000 feet in in the air. The light appeared to him to be the headlight of some kind of it ship. While he watched, the light went out and small ones such a incandescent lights, appeared all around the body of the vessel, or whatever it was.
The strange craft sailed slowly in a southernly direction and while Mr. Bounds watched it all the lights were extinguished and then it disappeared.
On the same night, about 2 o'clock, J. A. Black of Paris, Tx., night watchman at the Paris Oil and Cotton company's plant, observed a faint but luminous body in the northeast heavens. It looked at first like a luminous cloud, but as it drew nearer he saw it was some, huge monster. He hurried over to the cabin of a negro named Jim Smith and woke him up, and when Jim caught sight of the heavenly visitor his wool promptly straightened out and Jim piously went to praying. Mr. Black watched the object carefully, and to a Dallas News reporter he said its body was shaped something cigar, and appeared to be 200 feet long. It carried sails and attachments that looked like great fans. It finally disappeared, going in the direction of the Mississippi river. Mr. Black's dog was with himi when he first discovered the monster and he was greatly agitated and moaned until the thing disappeared.
On the same night Conductor Virgil Brown and his brakeman on the Texas-Pacilic Railroad saw the curious monster near Jewella. La., about thirty miles east of Marshall. It appeared to have a search light attached to it that threw out rays in several directions. It appeared to be going in the direction of Marshall and traveled faster than his train. On the same night at Marshall, Marshal Dick Wentberby. night watchman at the Pacific Railroad shops, saw the monster pass over. From Jewella to Hillsboro is some 300 or 400 miles, and the ship being seen at both places only a few hours apart shows it is a traveler. Whence is it? 'What is it and whither is it going, anyhow? Are we living in the days when strange sights are to appear in the heavens?
From this point onward the word was out that these things were being seen in Texas. What follows in the coming days in the Statesman seems like borderline mass hysteria.

April 20, 1897 - Rickety Airship

The report that Deputy Sheriff Thorp and Uncle Dick Boyce, afraid of the airship, were sleeping in the boiler room at the court house, is untrue. They stay in the basement of the Capitol. No weak boiler room for them with a rickety airship sailing overhead.

April 20, 1897 - The Heavenly Mystery

Possible soldiers from warlike Mars out on a terrestrial reconnoiter
An astronomical theory about the mysterious stranger as seen in Chicago. The celestial craft the talk of the town.
The great and mysterious aerial vessel that has thrown north Texas and many parts of the country into a state of excitement and commotion, was first seen sailing over Kansas, but the stories about it did not excite much attention. Since then, however, the mysterious stranger has been seen in many parts of the country, and Friday night last reputable citizens in scores of Texas towns had a view of the aerial vehicle. It has traveled over Illinois, Indiana, Iowa. Wisconsin, Arkansas, Louisiana and other states, and everywhere has excited great curiosity and in some places provoked consternation. On Friday night, April 9, the strange light skirted over the northern border of Chicago and could be seen, according to the numerous reports of residents in that neighborhood. A great crowd gathered at the corner of Milwaukee and Oakley avenues and gazed at the object, trying to figure out to their satisfaction what it might be. It was an "airship" for lack of a better name to designate it by, but most were skeptical about the identity of the "manifestation." It was said the object looked very much like a balloon, but the "red light" was plainly discernible. Many of the people mounted the roofs in the neighborhood and all the field glasses in the vicinity were called into play.
...
In Texas:
The strange craft seen at many points in North and East Texas Friday night has thrown those parts of the state into a whirl of excitement. Col. R. N. Burt, cashier of the National Bank of Ladonia, Texas, saw the craft, or whatever it is, last Friday night. His description varies very little from that of others, only that it appeared much larger to him, as he says that it seemed to be about 300 feet long, its wiungs being enormous and looking like huge sails. It seemed to hover for a short time over the city and then rise and go rapidly in a southwesterly direction. At Farmersville, Texas, Friday night, as reported in the Dallas News, about 9 o'clock a dim tight was seen in the northwest, apparently moving slowly to the south or southeast. When first seen it did not look larger than an ordinary 30-cent silver piece. Those watching it soon discovered that the object was approaching the city. It traveled; at the rate of sixty or eighty miles an hour. Some thought it to lie a cloudless tornado, and those who had storm houses lost no time in getting into them, whilst the more unfortunate waited and watched the result, of the approach of the queer object. In a very short time fully two-thirds of the citizens of the city were out looking at what they then supposed to be a large planet or meteor approaching the earth. In a few moments, in fact, in less time than one can tell it, the queer thing was almost hanging over the city. City Marshal Brown was in the western part or the city making his rounds before going home and says the ship or balloon passed over him about 200 feet from the ground. Mr. Brown says he could see two men in the ship and something resembling a large Newfoundland dog. Mr. Brown says he was close enough to hear them talking, but could not understand one word of their language.
Mr. Walter L. Norwood, an undertaker at Galveston, had a professional call about 3 o'clock Saturday morning, and he says he and his driver. Bob Tevis, saw the airship and said to a Galveston news reporter: "The moon was shining brightly, and we could see almost as fully as in daylight. There was not a cloud in the sky. When we were out on the beach not far from our destination I happened- to look up and saw the thing. It moved to the eastward down the beach, following the line of the beach as closely as one would do in driving a buggy. We stopped and watched it. When down about the end of the island it turned and followed the bay front until almost Tremont street, when it turned and went south out over the gulf, disappearing in the distance." It was pointed at both ends, according to Mr. Norwoods description, and the headlight was directly in front. It looked like a great big bird, with wings flapping regularly and it traveled swiftly.
Statesman's Mystery Man.
The mystery man of The Statesman heard yesterday that Mr. R.H. Cousins had caught a glimpse of the mysterious ship Friday night, and Mr. Cousins was seen about it. 'No, I saw no ship," he said. "I stepped out into my yard and my attention was attracted by a moving light which appeared to lie some distance above the earth, not far from the residence of Mr. J. W. Graham. I first I thought it was a meteor, but I soon discovered it moved too slow for a meteor. In the light was not very large, I think possibly I could have covered it with my hand. I watched it as it moved and it passed over and down in the direction of Shoal Creek. I saw no dark object, nor anything that resembled a ship; I saw nothing but the light, and at the time thought nothing about it. The story, as reported, was that Mr. Cousins had seen a large ship-like shape, with the light attached to it. To the Statesman's gang last night the mystery man, to the utter consternation of the boys, gave it as his unalterable opinion that there was something in this airship business. "Where there's so much smoke there must be some fire," he said. "So many reports, from so many different points can not be fabrications. People may say what they will, but there's something in it."
The gang was visibly moved. "It is my opinion," continued the mystery man, "that the airship, so-called, is nothing more nor less than a reconnoitering aerial war car from warlike Mars, investigating the Conditions of the United States to see what reinforcements we'll need when the country is invaded by the allied armies of Europe, the Mars soldiers having no confidence whatever In the American jingoes as real fighters," "With these soldiers of Mars cavorting around over our heads, do you think there is any danger to us of the earth?" asked the gang in concert,' "I most emphatically do.
Last Thursday night one of their aerial boats exploded, and scraps of steel and piece of electric wire were found on the school house, the roof of which workmen were repairing. They heard an explosion during the night, and just before it took place the aerial vehicle was seen sailing through the air. There is great danger in venturing out these nights. What if one of those fellows from Mars should tumble out and fall on you ? The city editor and telegraph man were profoundly impressed, and last night they slept under a table in the editorial rooms.

April 21, 1897 - Shadbolt gets a package at the Driskill

Say, you people all know Shadbolt, manager of the Driskill, and are acquainted with his reputation for veracity? The fact that he is in the category with George Washington in this line, inclines me to take stock in these airship yarns that are at present flooding the country. Shad asserts that while on the roof of the hotel last Monday night engaged in taking clothes off the line, he was astonished first by a peculiar sizzling noise, followed immediately by a biff, bang, whiz, and a current of cold air that chilled him to the marrow. Dodging behind a chimney pot, he saw coming towards him a frightfully constructed cigar-shaped balloon, or something of that character.
His heart was in bis throat for a moment, but swallowing it with an effort, be sang out: 'Ship ahoy!' A voice replied: 'Howde? Is this Austin?' 'You're bloody right,' yelled Shad, whereupon the main guy on that flying monster called out: 'Stand by you lubbers, and let go that freight'. Something struck the roof, and the startled manager says as the thing went out of sight there was a man sitting cross-legged on the quarter deck, working a concertina. and grinding out the music of 'Me 'Art Is True to Poll,' (???) In the bundle, which smelled of stale fish and a few decayed things of that kind, was a note stating that the ship was en route to China, but would return in October next, by which time the writer hoped the Texas legislature would have passed all the blooming (democrat) platform demands formulated at Fort Worth. Now Shadbolt will not deny bis fondness for potted cheese and a bleeding glass of 'alf and 'alf, but be says neither of these appetizers had the slightest connection with his experience on the roof. He's got the note, and the brick that came with it, and will take pleasure in showing it to his friends.

April 21, 1897 - Weary Man Sick of Hearing About Airship

A weary man: "Can yon direct me to a boarding house where they do not talk of the airship?"

April 24, 1897 - Airship Resolution

Proposal to have the commission regulate them.
Yesterday morning, in a spirit of fun, Mr. Brigance offered the following resolution about airships: "Whereas, There is an airship sailing around Texas, carrying freight and passengers; and whereas the owners or incorporators of said airship pay no taxes for said traffic; and whereas, the railroad commission have been derelict in their duty in fixing rates tor said airship; and whereas, The State of Texas is badly in need of fund to run the state government; therefore,
Be it resolved that the advocate of revenue measures. Hon. J. T. Curry, the representative from Van Zandt county, is hereby requested to be the master of making rates for the government of said airship before the Railroad Commission of Texas and request that said commission proceed at once to make rates and charges for the transportation of passengers and freight in Texas, and in default of the payment of said rates, said commission shall apply to the Justice of the Peace of Precinct No. 1, Travis County, and procure an attachment and proceed to levy the same upon said airship for the purpose of collecting said rates, etc.
Now comes the second instance mentioned in the 2017 article.

April 26, 1897 - Airship Again

The airship made its appearance again early yesterday morning. At least three young men who were camping up on Bull creek, at Huddle's point, say they saw it. Messrs. Geo. Proctor, Ted Tobin and Jno. Caldwell went up the hike Saturday afternoon for a couple of days camp, and pitched their tents at Huddle's point. About 3 o'clock yesterday morning it began to rain, and the young men were compelled to get up and fasten their tent. It was at this time they saw the mysterious air craft. They claim it was in sight fully fifteen minutes and are positive they could not have been mistaken. At intervals of every few seconds it would throw its searchlight, and the boys say the light looked as big a four ordinary arc lights. It made its appearance from behind Mount Bonnell and traveled north. The boys broke camp last afternoon they say because it was raining so hard, but that mysterious light probably made the rain seem wetter than usual.

April 27, 1897 - Another Airship Again

It seems impossible to hide anything from the "argus eyes and ears" of a Statesman reporter. Mr. Teagarden of Teagarden & Shumate, "The Peacemakers," has been in "telepathic" communication with the inhabitants of Mars for some time past. In fact his summer location on the summits of various mountains in Colorado has been the means of enabling him to adopt a system of telepathic communication, and he intimates that "the airship" now voyaging around us is for the purpose of discovery, and not war, as some suppose. The ship is named "The Peacemaker" and is now used in the interest of his manufacturing centers of goods kept by this firm and perfect such arrangements as may be necessary for their interests. Upon his return early in May, Mr. Teagarden designs taking a trip over the eastern continent as a guest of the representatives of the fiery planet. No alarm need be felt by the inhabitants of Earth as the appearance of the ship only betokens peace. In fact, wars are a thing of the past in Mars, and the art is lost with them.

April 27, 1897 - Airship Located

It is en-route to Cuba to scatter dynamite for Wyler's forces.
A carefully planned expedition left for Cuba last night from near Sea Isle, N. J. The supply of arms and ammunition left New York Saturday on lighters and was placed on a tug between Barengal and Long Branch. The tug came steadily down the coast and was soon joined by another boat. In the way of munition, the expedition took along a Hotchkiss gun. 1000 rifles, 13000 rounds of ammunition, 2000 machetes, a lot of medicine and what is known as an experimental flying machine adapted to the use of dynamite.

April 29, 1897 - Airship Seen Here

It passed over the city yesterday morning in a rain.
Moved Slowly, Plainly Visible
Seen by more than one person. Work of Hiram Wilson, son of the master-mechanic for the New York Central (Railroad).
The airship, carrying a large headlight, passed over the city yesterday morning, apparently about 300 or 400 feet above the earth. It moved slowly at first, traveling in a northwesterly direction, but its speed seemed to lie greatly increased when it reach a point probably over Shoal creek. A gentleman out north of the capitol saw it, and a colored man living on Robertson Hill had a sight of the aerial visitor. A fine view of it was had by Mr, Otto F. Porsch, an intelligent and wholly reliable gentleman living at the corner of Colorado and Second streets and doing a grain and feed business at 402 East Sixth street. He is well known and has a large circle of friends. A Statesman reporter saw Mr. Porsch at his place of business yesterday, and he told the following story: "I was aroused from my sleep by my dogs barking and growling, and I went to a window and looked out. It was very cloudy and dark, and I saw the glare of a big light on the clouds. I thought a large fire was in progress and hastily put on my clothes and went out into the yard to see where it was. As I opened the door to go out, my young dog, greatly scared at something, pushed by me and went into the house. My old dog stayed in the yard, and I noticed he was barking at something overhead, and I looked up and saw great light slowly moving over the Salge Hotel. It was coining from the southeast and moved in a northwesterly direction. It appeared to me to be about 300 or 400 feet above the hotel, and it traveled very slow, the light being so blinding that I could not see the shape of the vehicle or whatever it was carrying it, I watched it carefully, and after it had gone some distance and has passed me, I could see the shape of the rear end of the vessel, and it appeared to be in this shape." And Mr. Forsch arranged his hands in a V shape, somewhat like the tail of a fish. "It was still moving very slowly, but as I watched 1 saw a movement on each side of it like a bird flap ping its wings, and its speed was once greatly increased, and I watched it until it disappeared, which was not long after it began to increase its speed. It was drizzling a little, and it rained pretty hard after the light disappeared. Asked if he saw any colored lights, he said "No, I did not. It was a very large, ordinary light and very blinding until it passed me." Mr. Porsch said that a gentleman living out north of the capitol told him yesterday forenoon that he had seen the ship at the same time Mr. Porseh did. Mr. Porsch said: "After it had disappeared I went buck into the house and looked at the clock, and it was exactly fifteen minutes after 4." A colored man named Gray saw the ship as it passed over yesterday morning.
The Galveston News of yesterday contained a story that the vessel landed in Uvalde a few days ago near the residence of Sheriff H. W. Baylor. Two men were aboard, with whom Mr. Baylor talked, one of them giving bis name as Wilson, and he said be had lived in Fort Worth, and the News of yesterday confirmed bis story and shows he did live in the Panther city, where he worked on an arship.
...

May 2, 1897 - Letter to Sheriff Baylor of Uvalde

A gentleman in this city has written Sheriff Baylor of Uvalde for the particulars of the airship he boarded and inspected at Uvalde.

May 4, 1897 - Cripple Creek Airship

The airship has been heard from at Cripple Creek. The information comes through a letter dropped from the airship. The letter states that there are three person in the airship, and that they are out of water and can not make a landing on the earth and have given up in despair. A man who could invent such an airship a that would have the ingenuity to condense water from the clouds, but the whole thing about the airship seems to be getting to be "in nubibus." (?)

May 4, 1897 - Airship demonstrated at Nashville

A sure enough airship
A Practical Demonstration Given at the Nashvllle Exposition
Today at the Tennessee Exposition, Professor Arthur Barnard, physical instructor of the Young Men's Christian Association of Nashville, began a jonrney in an airship constructed by himself. Professor Barnard promised to sail against the wind after arising into the air, and he did so. The airship will be continued in use at the exposition. Professor Barnard said he would land at the starting point tonight. The ship is 4 feet long and 20 feet in diameter
...

May 11, 1897 - Travis County Man Knows How To Build An Airship, But Won't

In a burst of confidence yesterday, Uncle Dick Boyce informed a Statesman reporter that Joe Costa had seen an airship sailing majestically through the deep blue heavens.
Joe was hunted up and asked if he saw the aerial mystery.
"I have not seen an airship, nor do I want to see one," he indignantly said. "If I wanted to see an airship I'd build one and be done with it. I know exactly how one should be constructed. You know I've watched buzzards and a ship modeled after them will fly"
...

May 23, 1897 - Webberville Airship

It was seen in Austin and Webbervllle Friday night.
Friday night, about 12:30 o'clock, Mr. O'Brien, the Associated Press operator in the Statesman office, while standing on the gallery in front, saw what was evidently the airship, or at least the mysterious aerial body that has been seen several times in these parts. Mr. O'Brien watched it about a half minute, and then hastened to the window and called to the telegraph editor to come quick. The latter, although mentally absorbed in the interesting St. Louis produce market, hastened to the gallery, but when he got there the airship had passed out of view behind the business buildings southeast of the office. Both watched for some minutes in vain, and then returned to their work, the operator with a puzzled look, and the telegraph editor with an incredulous smile flitting across his face. They resolved not to say anything about it till next day, to see if any other night hawk had seen anything of the sort. Yesterday word came from Webberville announcing that John T. McCall, a prominent citizen of that section, had seen the airship about 10 o'clock Friday night. It was sailing very low, and he had a good view of it. He said it looked to be about fifty feet long, and was brilliantly lighted, looking something like a steamboat at night. This description tallies exactly with Mr. O Brien's description. There is about two and a half hour s difference in the time the two men saw it, but this could be easily accounted tor. There is evidently something prowling about the heavens in this neck of the woods, whether it is an airship or some other illuminated body.

June 2, 1897 - Edison Says Mysterious Airship is Fake

Thomas Edison, Denounces It as a "Pure Fake" Thinks It Absurd, Believes, However, That Airships Will Be Successfully Constructed in Future.
...

June 2, 1897 - Legislature Sees An Airship

Along about 10 o'clock some enthusiastic member saw what be thought was an air ship hovering over the university, and in a many seconds as it take to tell it, all the dear solons were rubbernecking toward the airship. The House and Senate both were nearly disbanded in their vain endeavor to see the airship. It could be plainly seen hovering over the university, and the members spent some time in discussing exactly how the ship was operated. They will probably not feel so cheerful in the morning when they discover that the impossible airship that excited their admiration was but a kite -an aeroplane- the university professors were operating for the purpose of trying to secure electrical experiments. The horse is on the solons, and they might as well give in.
Well I'm almost out of space but I think you get the picture. It goes on like this throughout the summer of 1897 and into 1898 when primitive airships were used in the Spanish-American war. There is an old truism that says necessity is the mothers milk of invention, but I have always said ubiquity does the same thing. In this case it seems to fit, the materials for flight were available everywhere and a few visionaries put it together. As for all the Austin sightings, I can't say who it was or what they were trying to do. But I do think if even one of those sightings was real then there is probably a chapter on human flight in some history books that needs a little expanding.
No Bonus Pics today I'm afraid. I hope to make it up to you next time.
submitted by s810 to Austin [link] [comments]


2020.01.15 16:29 acloudrift Diss-Cussing whole E-Bible (joke title)

Disclaimers
Warning: essay with links, not a wade in shallows, a dive into deep end
My apologies to devotional Christians who will surely take offense at the following notions. I have no animosities to these persons; they form a bulwark or buffer-zone between me and MORE hostile religions like Judaism, Islam, Climate-Change, and Government Saves (it really ENslaves). These muckers should have their own Diss-Cussion posts. Christianity is not the least mucked-up belief system. Even less mucked up are European Enlightenment, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Shinto (traditional Japanese behavior) and Rothbardism. But I'm surrounded by a Christian culture called the American Bible Belt. At least around here, Christians are the powers that be.
The famous Holy Bible is a mucking curse on humanity, especially the Old Testament (aka Torah), and the New T is not much better. They are both creations of compromised Judaic illusionists.
Compromised because their fictions have multiple objectives (things to which readers should object, and goals of the authors and promulgators of the themes contained therein). For quick proof of how mucked up the OT is, look at its associates, the N and K. TNK is so mucked up, I want to use the acronym NTNK for anti-TNK, which is really a better label for a goy posture toward hostile Judaics than "Zionist" or my own Juice, because it goes to the source of Jewish hostility to Goyim (aka Golem).
Who Wrote the Bible? - R SEPEHR 12.5 min
edit Apr.23.2020 Pagan Origins of Judaism 22 min Judaic departure from typical near east traditions; 14:05 Judes placed mythic humans featured, the NrEasTs had mythic gods featured, humans were menials; discussion of bible begins 14:37 search Pentateuch documentary hypothesis, Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis Judaic timeline diagram 15:38
Evidence of Judaic muckery: Dual Morality, one for Jews, the opposite for Goyim
Jews support LGBT movement, but Forbidden relationships in Judaism
One Law for Jews, Another Law for Gentiles 2016
Jews and the GOYIM: Candor About the Ongoing Implications of Talmudic Dual Morality
Null hypothesis says that Bible is the revealed word of God (YHWH). Alternative hypo, a curse. Why? It's a fancy aggregation of fictions that have been hyped into a dominance agenda. Bible is maybe the most respected and reprinted book in history. Today I'm going to don my "ultra-violate" glasses (spectrally opposite to "rose-colored"). My regard is Bible's high reputation is way out of proportion to the actual content. Respect for it comes from a long tradition, which includes (un-hyped) brutal enforcement. The muckers in control of the various Churches have been despicable, morally depraved, and power-mad molesters screwing over the general public (literally in the case of children). But of course, those ideas are things TPTB want you (respected Goy reader) to un-know.
Whassa mattah me, don't I "get it"? Yeah, I get that Bible's another scam, the cultural world is chock full of them. See Survey of Creation and Destruction Part 4 HoaxWorld. Religion is not investigated in that blog, I skipped it on purpose. Putting down traditional beliefs is guaranteed to attract calumny. So for today, I'm throwing caution to the wind and saying "calumny? bring it on."
Unicorns? BELIEVE Why Christianity is bullshit, part 1: The Bible is stupid 2012 brief article followed by 41 comments; sequential proceeds (Aggregation of parts extracted in study notes.)
What IS Religion? US government is prohibited from making a law "respecting establishment" of one.
Something spooky: "establishment" can mean an existing thing, OR a process of creating such a thing. Legal definition: establishment
But Bill of Rights does not define religion, it takes for granted everyone knows. Most Constitutional scholars look to Black's Dictionary of Law... default is Christian. So readers are left to decide among the various Christian sects.
General definition, 'religion' offers 3 clusters of descriptors. I'm going to offer a more succinct summary:
1 ideology composed of some fixed (inflexible, not a trend) doctrine (idea set) 2 said doctrine is espoused and promulgated by a coterie of persons knowledgeable in the doctrine, who might be said to "believe" it, that is, are faithful to it 3 elements of the doctrine should be considered 'memes' in that the knowledge is reproduced by believers to persons not familiar with the ideology to become likewise, believers 4 said coterie (or cadre) forms a core group endeavoring to reproduce their 'special knowledge' doctrine, are considered 'authorities', and the doctrine is supported by argument from authority aka 'faith' and not requiring any empirical evidence. It seems that fiction works better than truth to attract followers, if history is good evidence. In the case of some religions, what began as no more than teaching of philosophy morphed into fantastic fictions over time 2016.
The success of a meme (its reproduction rate relative to its extinction rate) depends on the benefits it provides to (a) potential new believers, (who may decide to 'pass on it'), and (b) old believers, (who want to 'pass it on').
According to my definition, any book (eg. Bible) might be considered a religion, since it has most of the features, except one: motive for reproduction. Books can be parsed into commercial enterprises, and belief systems. A commercial enterprise benefits promulgators via fiduciary exchange outside the contents of the book. Example DaVinci Code, author Brown profited from sales, not in having readers "believe" the fictional story. A belief system benefits promulgators via the contents of the book, any other exchange is not essential. Example Gideon's Bible. It seems there is some innate satisfaction from gaining converts to one's own ideals. See also the Judaic mitzvah (divine obligation) Tikkun olam ('repairing' the world by pushing Judaic memes upon others (some of the memes are for Jews, others are for Goyim, example Ethical movement, "replacing theology with unadulterated morality") ).
Religion, the (horrible) Truth, A Werner 2003
A take-down of religious "morality" by a "believer"
How the Medieval Church Frightened People Into Obedience 11.5 min
Best Proving or Disproving God Theory
After perusing evidence for many years, I find the theory that best explains Gods and Goddesses is simple: they're imaginary. That's not to dismiss them, because it's a proven fact that imagination exists IRL, that is from where all human artifacts come, ideas. "Tis an ILL wind that blows no minds" ― Malaclypse the Younger Virtual Religion
Why are the books of the Bible (anthology) so well-respected?
Bible IS respected, (the contents, not the physical object) but my case is that the respect is not deserved, it comes as a tradition, which by definition, is a body of respected custom. A big chunk of that tradition came with brute force to spread it and keep it, especially during the middle ages when Roman Catholic/Orthodox Churches executed heretics, and communities ostracized deviants (eg. witches). More about them below. My attitude is that all religions have a veneer of social construction, meaning the persons promoting a theology want to cast a spell, to influence followers into their system (special knowledge... "Possession of special knowledge will save you, we have such knowledge; kneel before us, pay us, etc." — quote from).
In the case of witches, the presumed heresy claim could be applied to extort money or property from the victim or her family, by hiding that with the overt excuse of condemning a pagan (evil) heritage. Who were those ye-olde "witches"? (Christian Era)
Medieval Period - History of Witchcraft
Witches and Witchcraft in the Middle Ages
A Very Brief History of Witches & Witchcraft
Evolution of the medieval witch – and why she’s usually a woman 2018
New Witch Overview
Why were witches mostly women? (another view)
There was a pre-historic pagan heritage contrary to Christian doctrine, which Church officials wanted to eliminate. Part of that heritage was a lore of herbal medicine which probably worked better than the prayers offered by Churchmen who were essentially clueless about illness. Women were more likely to be practitioners of herbalism due to their nurturing bent. So Churchmen needed those herbalists to be "painted black" and cursed to oblivion. There may have been some use of hallucinogenic "medicine" associated with those herbalists, which could be exploited as evidence of wrong-doing, much like it is today with the "War on Drugs". (Drugs are not directly problematic, their hazard is due to black-market sellers demanding high prices, and the associated crimes buyers commit to pay them. See illicit drug trade)
Bible influence has varied. Thru much of European Church history, only elite persons had access (Devotional churchmen and well educated laypersons (versions, translations). Not only that, but other influences had a stronger influence in Christian affairs than the Bible, in particular were medieval confluences with religions that pre-dated Christianity. Romanisation of Christianity 11.7 min
See table of non-Biblical foreign inductions 7:32
Spirits
From prehistory, spiritual ideas and feelings seem to have existed, proof being cave paintings, statuettes, petroglyphs, and surviving artifacts of historic times, like Egyptian tomb paintings and Greek myths. My attitude is that spiritual ideas are a conflation of social construct and memories of parents (or caregivers), from early childhood. Social constructs are artifacts, and toddler-age memories are colored by the adults involved, but the gist is that adults may be awesome to an infant. See a detailed investigation of social constructionism.
Morality as presented in Bible, parable form, is confusing if taken as direct illustration (more obvious moral parables, see Aesop's Fables).
Sin: behavioral (or mental!) activity of which authorities disapprove, usually because it may undermine their control. Eg., peruse my appraisal of 10 commandments, and Survey of Christianity (part 1)
Blessed Be... our believers, for they shall pay us forever.
Cursed Be... our disbelievers, for they shall assume our scorn-dumps forever.
See AntiZionist Canards (series opener)
Torah YHWH was a vile character model. Anu-Yahweh, True Devil, Impostor God because God sacrificed his own son... (warning: you will not like this post) 2017
List: The Church’s Most Controversial Doctrines (note these are Church doctrines, not Bible doctrines)
Jesus is painted white, a Prince of Peace, and a Merciful God-the-Son. Isn't that a totally different character than the Torah's YHWH? (Can't be same god (or leg of tri-god)!)
"God-the-Father" of Jesus let him be tortured to death by Romans. What kind of role model is that for fatherhood?
Christians: If Jesus was God, then to whom did he sacrifice himself? (content is all in the comments)
Christian Cross is a Roman instrument of torture and execution. What kind of symbol is that for a merciful doctrine? The other famous symbol is a fish, something smelly about that.
Why True Christians Do Not Use the Cross in Worship
Original Christian Cross was Greek letters Chi, Rho
YHWH modeled after: Middle Eastern God-Kings and Ozimandias-like 'Oriental Potentates' virtually corrupt nation
How the Jews Invented God, and Made Him Great 2016
Holy Trinity is a Pagan-derived doctrine, and so are many other Christian motifs.
Christian, Freemason, Jewish motifs
Gods of the Lodge
HOW CHRISTIANITY WAS INVENTED 2012
Accurate "prophecies" are always "posted" (published after being "confirmed")
Moving On?
Roots of the White Man 2016
In a Quest for Religion's “holy spark”, leaving the Age of Now behind, is Salvation (Alignment) to be found in Computer Games?
7 Reasons to Play Computer Games 2016 Psy2dy
Enlightenment 2.0 by apostle Chen
Why Study Christian Bible, while we have Wikid Pedia?
1 ring-verse (universe) bible-verse-curse, an allusive template: One Ring
Tolkien full-quote
Morphic version, Bible allusion
One Thing to rule them all, One Thing to mind them, One Thing to bring them all into Black Knight, and blind them In the Land of Moloch where the Judasots lie.
(for reference to Judasots, see the story of Exclude Us)
Getting funky, caution: distortions ahead, for grins
Bible Study Read my 'Meshed Up' Lips
Regina Vagina 0.7 min
Errors in Book of Dan?... evidence in troduction to the Book of Daniel
1 Meshab, 2 Moab, and 3 AlbiNegro, some kinda twisted parody on Danny Stuff... freebased on: Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego wkdpd
Shadrack MacGimsey 3.5 min
1 Moche Prick, a plagiarized story of Meshab and the White Whale (not MeshLab)
2 MOAB (umm a - Saddam's Children)
3 Albi Negro (Jesus was Albino African Hypothesis)
Butt On Line
All Bible teachings, and also non-Bible teachings coming from a church, are trivial in the sense they have little or no effect on actions (except church attendance). If someone makes an action on 6 days per week, the idea for which came from Bible, that would be an exception. Most actions I've seen have little to do with Biblical influence (except maybe virtue signaling with public prayer). So I'm OK with the Bible, it's an old fictional book, not especially good for anything but quoting, not even amusement, unless you like to argue. So go ahead and believe whatever you want, does not matter to me.
edit Apr.12.2020 (Happy Easter)
History Guy on Bible, translations King James Version: Translating the World's Most Popular Book 12.2 min
Francis Bacon, KJV by Mather Walker (illustrated) 2007
Sr FB NAoL homepage
sequel, Diss-Cussing Religion
study notes
Aggregation of "Why Christianity is bullshit', part X, by MIKE D 1 Bible is stupid 2 Bible Not True 3 Theology is absurd Onward UnChristian Sojures; A-Unicornist blog (homepage)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Holy_Bible_(album)
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=(Christian)+bible+%3D+garbage&atb=v81-4__&ia=web
Occulting the Bible – How Scripture Was Kept From the Masses 11.7 min
The Lie of the Tyrannical Biblical God, Rockn'MrE 10 min
A take-down of religious "morality" by a "believer"
Religion is "scary" literature
Do We Obey God Out of Fear? 2016
Obey God from Fear 2017 That's a lame excuse. Now take the Aztec's neighbors for example; they had genuine reason to fear (Huitzilopochtli)
http://miraculousbible.org/Articles/MiraculousBible,CrossReferencesAsArcs,MarvelousUnity,40Authors,1500Years,66Books,BeyondMansCapabilities.pdf
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=Torah+YHWH+was+a+vile+character+model&atb=v81-4__&ia=web
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=cursing+Torah%27s+YHWH&atb=v81-4__&ia=web
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=YHWH+a+crappy+god&atb=v81-4__&ia=web
https://duckduckgo.com/?ratb=e&q=list+of+Roman+insertions+to+Christian+doctrine&atb=v81-4__&ia=web
From Jediism to Judaism: Star Wars as Jewish Allegory Dec 5, 2015
new age hippie talk and more like an introduction to Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism.
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=%3E+Garrett+Hardin+writes%3A+%22The+essential+characteristic+of+a+tribe+is+that+it+should+follow+a+double+standard+of+morality+--+one+kind+of+behavior+for+in-group+relations%2C+another+for+out-group.%22&atb=v81-4__&ia=web
Garret Hardin “The Tragedy of the Commons,” 1968
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=Dual+Morality%2C+one+for+Jews%2C+the+opposite+for+Goyim&atb=v81-4__&ia=web
Paul-Michel Foucault philosophy
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=buddhism+began+as+teaching+of+philosophy%2C+but+in+subsequent+centuries%2C+morphed+into+fantastic+fictions+over+time&atb=v81-4__&ia=web
does worship = deity, or religion?
When Jews Rule The World 2012 rjn (video is dead)
Prophetic Years Prophetic implications of Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem 2017 America transforms from honorable to dishonorable in fifty years 2013 Deception is epidemic in America 2011 must be war
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE WESTERN WORLD
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=some+religions%2C+what+began+as+no+more+than+teaching+of+philosophy+morphed+into+fantastic+fictions+over+time&atb=v81-4__&ia=web
submitted by acloudrift to AlternativeHypothesis [link] [comments]


2020.01.03 16:37 sconce2600 The List: 2020

Edit 4/9/20: The lineup potentially leaked on the official website, bold names denote the names leaked (this may change upon an official release).
This is a list of acts that are potentially playing OSLs 2020. I intend to update this list via edit from now until the lineup drop. If you want to add someone to this list just comment below and I will modify the list and credit your handle next to the edit. If you want to find someone in particular quickly I suggest you use ctrl F.
POTENTIAL HEADLINERS
POTENTIAL UNDERCARD:
Playing five tracked festivals
Playing four tracked festivals
Playing three tracked festivals
Playing two tracked festivals
Playing one tracked festival
Added by users, not currently playing any heavy crossover festivals so far
The following have appeared at OSLs once before but have not released new material since their first stint and are therefore less likely to appear in 2019 (To date only Beck and Vance Joy have returned WITHOUT new material, making the following acts much less likely)
The following is a list of bands that have played OSLs more than once and the gaps between return performances, considering only five acts have ever played OSLs three times, all acts in this section should be considered less likely than acts that have played OSLs once or never. Note that no act has ever returned quicker than a three year gap, Givers, Fantastic Negrito, and Big Boi were all makeup performances for prior year cancellations.
Headliners
Threepeaters
Three year gap
Four year gap
Five year gap
Six year gap
Seven year gap
Eight year gap
Ten year gap
The following are past lineup drop dates, all lineup drops from 2012 to 2019 have occurred on a Tuesday:
ACTS CONFIRMED PRIOR TO LINEUP DROP:
Clement Marfo: cracked via bigpavelski35 from a Twitter clue video posted by OSLs Twitter.
Orville Peck
Zhu
Tyler, The Creator
Brittany Howard
The Hu
The 1975
Below are names on the potential lineup leak that occurred on 4/9/20 on the official Outsidelands website that were not included on either list:
submitted by sconce2600 to OutsideLands [link] [comments]


2019.10.21 05:06 PandoraSymbionte disappearing boy

"But I'm just a kid..." opening sentence of a story. "It was just a little mistake" as the ending sentence.

things are hollow, people on the street seem to be fading, but it is you that is disappearing, never on sight.

Hemlock has partial micro-convulsions from time to time.

Attack metamodernism for what is seen as 'capitalist analogs'. We need a plural culture to

better transform our current capitalist state. Metamodernism risks commodifying plurality in little boxes of ambiguity and irony cycles, hollow layers that need to be peeled then covered with something else.
How to incorporate Lethem's concerns in 'The Ecstasy of Influence' into the twin stories ( Panta and Gargantua)?
A theme: Slice of Life in the 21st Century
'Transcreation' part of the opening sentence in Panta

The night is viewed as the time and place which and when things from the Day transform

and transmute, commute and dance more freely. As Joyce dissolved and amassed his previous epic of the day in a long night and book, Finnegans Wake, a kind of fall, I want to dissolve and amass my services creating researches and articles in a virtual kind of night, in which I’ll be able to transmute and transform their form and content to fit a larger narrative. Yeah, I wish.

Nameless thief: a bag of wonders, a box of Pandora, my personal patchwork of themes,

characters and styles as particles colliding with each other. An immanence of transcolliding fictions, a maze of affects. The little book of the arrival, the first happening, the creation myth of our universe. Here I’m to transform my library in a story, a bizarre tale of a night without light but the moon’s. My Silmarillion.

the light running through nothing to hit him in the face

Drown yourself in meaning, without silence, make noise until you die. Then silence.

light metamorphosing into sound

I feel my time flux through the floating flame of an uneeded candle that repeats dancing

with its sisters, beating hearts of light, of syncopated difference. They jump in the air when I close my eyes. They are as free as I am not, traveling back to hit me in the face.

smitten with spells and wrath of gods - modern and old alike - they transform him

chaotically, agonizing he pleads.

In the emptiness of a mealtime thoughts coalesce and crystalize, a mirror is held to the void's face

making it recognize its own present as a sphinctery push between past and future ,- where it is made clear that this voice echoing around the head, through and about it, has a misfortune of not being enough anymore, as the voices of parents wheren't a long time ago - the cocoon breaks to reveal something new forming and already festering, enclosures enough in the past, like the prescriptions of mothers and fathers, weren't for a long time, as the inner voice that assumed thereafter, aren't anymore -, enough, that is.

Use my pocket city turned fiction to purge affects, like, for example, materialize the hatred for this fucking

idiot on the bar below, putting music so LOUD. What is wrong with you?
He grew up cultivating an affect for those not-so-rare moments of movies when a character, most notably the protagonist, imagined in some Christian way of the good samaritan, acts selfless and seems so nonchalant about it - as if it is something natural to them. He grew up trying to find the right spot to act in the same manner and feel a mirror to the world, someone not preoccupied with his many thought pattens but with acting right, cutting the chase. He saw many opportunities and acted accordingly, but something they don't teach you in the movies is that time is a differential: differently from those characters, who do something and months pass on a blink and they seem to not have changed a bit, when you do something selfless, you are faced with the passage of time until you begin doubting your actions.

Here comes THE IMMANENT OCTOPUS OF PRAXIS, watch him go, look at him

Pothole ~ ### Potboiler ~~ ### Holeboiler

Hollowpot ~ ### hollowboiler ~~ ### Hollowhole

a little monster that feeds off of sperm lurking in the corner of your room

a soup of conceptual necessities

thinking -- ### thin king -- ### fatking -- ### hefty(k)ing

I was that guy that sees what you're searching for, picks an ad designed specially for you and puts it in your video, your page, your porn, and whatever else. I was the enemy. It's that simple.

Like a frog in a monocycle inside the mouth of a golden baby.

I need to unironically vape right now

Everyday, after a good shit, I go scavenging my poop searching for gold. There never is any. So I grunt my way to work.
Parasytes that come at night, enter your open snoring mouth and chew the insides, causing mild pain and a bloated uvula that may incapacitate speech.
She rather dreamspeaks sometimes
when an apocalyptic-proportions catastrophe comes out, has to, because of the sedentary ways he was living, become more accustomed with 'real' life by rationalizing his time and rate of 'exercise' - imagine how I would have to think if aliens or zombies invaded my city out of nowhere and I was living like I am/was in the year 2017.
Nothing more extraordinary could be in the little park, besides two adult women, fences, fresh grass, and two kids.

Time passed slowly and the temperature fell nicely,

the trees swayed

Their mothers chatted joyfully. They didn't.
The first gaze was kind of weak, by the corner of the eye; just a glance.
Territory dashed with rustling leafs
Matter of a moment. A second. An encounter. One charm.
how morbid how lovely
Continuously echoing Hemlock
like chemotherapy: it's poison, but can help against the cancer.
festering growth of a structure
apenas suor amargo expelido junto do café processado e pensamentos nervosos de um ser neurótico e quebrado que não sai de uma cadeira há dias — chorando its way out of suicidal thoughts.
Vampiros, mas vampiros treinados pra temerem a noite. Reciclando seu próprio sangue inexistente enquanto o verdadeiro banquete gargalha às suas costas.
O canto dos grilos ao meu redor, o cintilar das estrelas na distância, vistas pelo escopo sujo de minha visão míope. Cheiro forte de vegetação, mijo e bosta; produtos bovinos, equinos e humanos alike. Tudo atrás de cercas mal-feitas e desgastadas pelo tempo. O relinchar de um burro ou jumento com um perturbador barulho de arame farpado sendo brutalmente torcido e pisado. Tudo ao meu redor, tudo na distância. Enquanto imagino o pobre animal lutando pela sua ingênua noção de liberdade, minhas pernas dormentes se arrastam pela areia. Quentes, efervescendo em cansaço de um logo dia que passou num piscar dos olhos de um cego. Minhas inúteis pernas livres contra a areia fria, areia essa que não sinto por baixo da sola de meu sapato, nunca senti. Mas que sei, de alguma forma, possuir imenso frio; pelo menos por essas horas. Sozinho, fones de ouvido enfiados até o interior do crânio. Música ambiente alta sob as estrelas à minha volta, como sempre, voltando do trabalho. O pensamento de tirar a música ambiente artificial e simplesmente ouvir o ambiente ao meu redor nem me passa pela cabeça; No seu reino de vegetação vasta, com incontáveis acres das mais coloridas configurações: fertlidade é a palavra de seu Aeon. Sofás, almofadas, colchonetes... todas as formas fofas e confortáveis são os assentos mandatórios do povo; e nem sequer um mendigo vive sobre o chão duro e frio nem sob pontes metalicas mofadas... ...se o Green King me aceitasse em seus pastos secretos, eu não estaria batalhando por significado nas minhas diversas reconfigurações dentro do quarto: onde sentar se não em uma de suas almofadas santas? Mas só tenho esse chão frio e um corpo suando por um motivo que certamente irei inventar mais tarde."
People will be born from giant wombs - collectivelly, somewhat of worshiped. They were initially artificial but being biologically engineered, evolved;
Papel em mãos, deslizando como água. Nada como a sensação de ter riscado todas as tarefas da lista de afazeres diários; nada mais a fazer hoje, resto do dia livre. Que horas são? Posso ter emendado no dia seguinte sem sequer ter percebido mais uma vez (não é incomum). Hoje fiz muitas notas, notas me deixam desconfortável, ainda mais quando são tantas como hoje. Seria isso mais uma nota? Quem poderia ser?
Preso em si mesmo, absolto de pecados mecânicos, um espelho que aponto pra outro espelho: Eu sou o mundo, o universo. Eu sou o buraco negro fora do tempo — Aquele possuidor de tudo, luz e espaço e flutuações quânticas. Tudo é em mim... (This is Hemlock echoing, trying to reach Lis) "E eu não sou nada sem você..." (This is Lis responding) Shut up. (Hemlock responds).
Hemlock is the villain and the goo interactions with the drugs makes him not see clearly focusing too much on himself, but the 'magical realist' side of the story is like a corner of his mind trying to dissuade him from his own narcissism, trying to make him see something other than himself and his own problems.
Make people notice Hemlock's convulsions. He doesn't, but the reader needs to. And since we're using this, make sure that in the parts where he is most lucid, he'll think clearly enough to make the reader understand what is happening, for example, he'll think about his money problems and his freelance practices, also, we can add character dialogue and interactions when he is convulsing and lucid to showcase the difference (also, more characters besides the rambling Lis/Hemlock would do good and make it more well-paced, not just a long stream of consciousness, else the reader would feel too claustrophobic trapped inside a constant barage of obscure terms.

Hemlock is a modern Jonah, only the whale is dead, the fish is rotting on the ground,

and its smell, its ghost, is lurking in the shadows, in the corner of his awareness. He has a two-way condition: the anxiety of waiting for that whale to come and the paranoia of suspecting being already trapped inside a dead fish. There is no Whiteness of the Whale, the Whale is not the ghost of anything, it is dead, and its ghost is not white but invisible with momentary flashs of hollowed transparency.
Maybe we can touch nicely on this with an event happening on the beach, first only mentioned by the scant corner of Hemlock's awareness, but later expanded upon when Hemlock goes to see the suicidal whales dying on the shore (as many people are also there, as previously mentioned).
Translators have to make themselves invisible too.
Panta is living in Brazil, but he, being a parasite of the English-speaking world, thinks in English admixtured with Br. People around him, at least most of them, talk normally in Portuguese.
Rabid foaming mouth, whirling colorful anime eyes.
Sit down!
If you're struck by lightning, you have no choice, there it is all flowing through your body, your bones, your blood. Your brain spasming with the twisting of your fingers and the burning of your pores, scorching hair all the way to your soul and back by the foaming mouth. You can't even scream as your larynx is too hot to work. So you accept, it's the only thing you can do, else you're dying from psychological stress besides the already unbearable physical one. It is after, after you accept it, as well as after it is gone seeping through the ground, that magic first reveals itself real, alive. You learn to see fire in everything, coming from your mouth as you speak and your tongue shimmer's ghastly, burning inside your eyes, bursting to meet other's and from them to yours, everywhere; but again, you have too, else you'll be locked in an asylum. You wake up in the night with images flashing so strong in your mind you think they're coming out of it, materializing by way of fire, exploding from your ears, eyes, mouth, oozing from your nostrils and destroying your skull on their way out. And when everything is fire, you don't know how to feel heat anymore, you're either always very cold or insufferably hot.
Hemlock's hollowed, tired to a pulp on the ground, he moves pryapic as a dick, a vectorr, a Mickey Mouse, being each time more penetrated by everything. It is when you're most gone, blending in the background, that meaning most reveals itself as you yourself, faded, chasing your own tail, blending in the background, disappears on repeat.
Hemlock is a metamorph as well as Lis, we can denominate in the text them by this name multiple times, be it one calling the other this or each calling themselves this. Such as "Me, the metamorph" or "You are a metamorph".

It was in his suppurating hate inside that bus, looking at all those people chattering or

evicting each other, wanting them all to disappear with the smog filling the smoky grey sky that a foreshadow germinated in the belly-mind of interactions that formed ‘him’. For there will be a time of non-human verbosity, a time of critical access, of epiphanies inside habits and habits out of improvisation. But now, first, the hate has to almost consume him as millions of virtual needles pierce his anxious skin. There, in the future, there is no skin – only the needles. But Samsara is law and you must survive; or maybe die – depends on the view and the date in which karma passes, if it will. Now the needles pluck and the pores ooze prickling goo turning black in the way out like caviar gushing out of a big-ass fish.
He saw no difference in reading or writing. In fact, he saw no difference in creating and consuming. Fucking or being eaten by the maggots. If it exists, it is to be cherished somewhere and to die later, and if it doesn't, it eventually will. No time for fame, prestige or power. He got sick of power from the moment he lacked the choice to be born, when he first realized he was going to die no matter what. It had happened by chance, and he didn't know how he felt about it. Nothing is of anyone, he thought once, nothing is for anyone. We simply are the things we like, we are the things we create and do. We've got only so much time, so let's just enjoy who we are and be until we can.
As if you were a dog, imagine that. A strange hand comes out of nowhere to surprise your ear with the most sweet of warm scratches. It feels good like that. Careful who you throw a bone to. If it still has some meat, worse. If you're going to throw it anyway, at least clean it cautiously.
Can you see the machinations yet? The white cold skeleton, the still meatful skull. Do you want to lick it? Just touch it, maybe. At the very least sniff its putrid coiling

A story about someone that made a treatise on why a new conception of magic would be to

our benefit and serve as unifying mode of living in a plural society with plural values, much like some people think that tools like category theory are for the benefit of science and plural ways of interpreting the world, much like, also, a method of translation without, despite being sharp, being cold. But, in the story, this someone dies before having to publish or disseminate their message. This someone could be related to Hemlock and he could be the person tasked with guarding this manuscript or set of manuscripts. He might decide to let it die with him, only trying to live by these rules and show rather than tell people how to behave. Mirabella, a possible name.

Hecate might be Hemlock. We need to try and keep this nuanced enough for a reader to question

this possibility. Hecate is a strange name and Hecate is only seen by Hemlock, when he is alone. Since Matilda is very smug, this is possible, and she is the only other who claims to know Hecate. Hint to this in two points in the narrative: first when they're talking with Nicolle, in her apartment, where Hemlock is to burst goo out of some places and pores (of the skin), and begin to seizure and incorporate Lis' personality, voice and possibly refer to himself as Lis, also at the end when Hemlock is to assault the guy on the beach covered in dying whales (nuance it enough for the reader to find it strange how much Hemlock is taking it personally, it could be because he is feeling righteous, because he hates these types of men and/or because he is Hecate.) It is a great idea to make Hemlock incorporate Lis because now we can expose some of our passages and sentences in Lis' voice that we previously didn't know how to insert diegetically.
If you leave it unchecked, life will conquer all. It's too expansive for its own good. I find it exaggerated.
Her lungs probably looked like that lichen-covered wall, all mossy and disgusting, yet somehow inviting, hopeful. She often punched her chest to unglue the phlegm, imagine the boogers falling and sedimenting in the bottom until she could not breath. That was the situation of the forest. But she was not desperate. We were. Run for your lives, we scream everyday, when she patiently tread what will eventually catch us. Our plump lady.
There once was a planet infested with trees infested with humans infested with political issues in the making.
And I found myself in the center of a hollow pan full of holes.
Ill-illuminated excuse for a city.

The story could begin, rather, with Hemlock not already in the car but in the park (My park, o parque da cidade). Then, after

some alone time there, he goes in the car. This could be the perfect moment to make more explicit what is happening, what is his motivation going to club God, why he is nervous, and to show his first seizure of the day, a strong one, before the other small ones througout the day. We can well-contrast the initial scene, if it is really to be the initial scene, with the final one on the beach. This could serve as somewhat of an opening artistic prologue in dominant third-person voiced by Lis and sprinkled with Hemlock's gapped thoughts. As a Jonah in a dry field, this is perfect to incorporate some Lis narration, also serving as juncture point with the later scene in Nicolle's house, the manifesting of Lis.
half-blind barely visible visionary

The first moment in the park, when Hemlock is almost to have his first seizure lying down

in the grass, he sums up, in an almost modernist way, the entirety of his nostalgic sensation regarding his region (Cariri). For example, our floods, our energy outtages, our smells in different seasons, etc. For the major public, that are outside this unique place, they can only imagine approximations of these sensations. Hemlock is absorbing the world, he is projecting forth all his memory, until the ceiling (the sky) begins to oscillate and turn gray, making everything around seen homogenized in a cloudy mass (a mess, also). This is our "half-blind barely visible visionary" moment.
It might be more comfortable to live in the dark. Not to have to open your eyes, adjust to the light. Turn off your lights, sit tight, close your eyes and wait. Maybe put on some music to help. Medicate yourself, self-convince you're not cut to a good life, to endure the struggle. The best you can do is rest there, waiting for the end. It is not really bad, just bittersweet. You had your share, you have good memories. You lived. That has to count for something, right?
enhancing transmuting manipulating conjuring specializing doesn't make you special emitting
I just wrote a research brief on how to take care of raccoons, and it was the high point of the night, at least I felt like I helped someone. Better than a market sizing and trend analysis of the lice treatment market.

As Hemlock is walking the streets, he feels as if he is losing weight, and he doesn't know

if it's because he is disappearing or because his money is flowing through the holes in his pockets. Either way, the result is the same. For whatever practical purposes, he is losing himself. He wastes away through his pores, black goo trails about soiling everything like fresh oil.

When having a small seizure, Hemlock sees everything and everyone as if smiling our of

nowhere, smiling so strongly to almost rip apart the skin, so strongly that the eyes curve and seem to disappear in their own slits. He also can feel like spinning, Two of my images that, again and again, ask to join my fiction.
@@@ Sing all the trees and musks. Lichen, algii and funghi alike. Be alive or no more. Sing now, no more whispers. I am here. I am yours.
remonstration
Finally sober of myself. (Seizure, and the blue that is leaving)

What if the girl cooking across the sreet is somewhat of a witch, at least in Hemlock's

goggles? How could we subvert the 'witch appearance in magical realism' trope? Maybe showcase more of my culture, Bruxas intead of Witches. Bruciare, coming from brucia, meaning something similar to burn. Bruxa derived from a term that meant to burn before it actually had connections to dark magic. It is as if people wanted to burn someone and later, coming back from the ecstatic stupor, began to rationalize a way out of their guilt, trying to justify their blind rage. This girl is not a bruxa, a witch, but she is a brucia, she is burning. She doesn't have any sign of connection to the dark magics, no evil intent, yet she burns behind invisible bars, as if in an abandoned waterless aquarium close to the stove. Her aura burns, flowing our of her pores in combustion. Phaethon.
Disease everywhere. Even the spork's handles are diseased.
Story title: Fkoon (The alternative for Spork)
Each passing year, old Disney's movies get creepier
"Pook" as some character's surname
Should I put "Sugondese" in the text?
My fiction up until now, at least Hummanence, is filled with liminal encounters and climaxes, where people arrive, through confusion and ecstasy, to a magical stupor of realization, epiphany and liminarity
Things that are too true need not be said. Fiction is lying.
What is the significance of water to my writing? This theme birthed itself just now while I formulate the beginning draft of my "Floods" essay.
What about sugar cane fields here in Barbalha? They just suggested themselves while I wrote the beginnings of my "An Ode To My Wart" essay.
While this new epiphany of having what I know and where I live represented in my fiction needs to be applied as of now, we need that transition to be effective: the short stories we're developing right now need to gradually show more of this until it is something common. For example, Pantagroreille will talk a lot about this, more than something like Chimerality, but neither of them can rely too heavily on this as something that comes later.

Nicolle, representing our mainstream view of science, the new "regime of signs" that opress

Hemlock's loose canon of understanding, that involve magic as developed by Mirabella, is a force that stomps Hemlock, pressuring his weakened state to break and give rise to a realized Lis. For this to make sense, Hemlock's scene at the park when the story begins need to somewhat imitate Walt Whitman's celtic style, magical, contemplative. This will make the reader more familiar with this particular theme, this clash later on.
About the scene later on, relating to Hecate, where Hemlock is to confront the possible man (or men, a group) that supposedly tried to hurt Hecate, how does it also relate to B.? Think about it, who is B.? I didn't expand on him or his whole plotline. What about this organization lurking in the shadows of the city and relating to Eli and Matilda? As previously thought out, they could be people coming from foreign lands such as Sicilia and the Balkans, influencing and participating of criminal activity with big money and big risks on the table.
Why don't I develop Hemlock's passion for the nightsky? His fascination with the stars and everything heavenly.
old anime vibrating eyes
undying sick man
Mickey mouse dick, when you squeeze the mouse so much go pee drink water pee again squeeze water pee squeeze until it becomes Mickey when you hallucinate Disney's old movies. Your dick alive, self-detached clicking eveywhere. (develop this passage).

What if we go into a long sequenced soliloquy about forgiveness and order and how Hemlock

should ignore the assaulter and let it be, since he is possibly related to his sister, a teacher or something. Only to, after a long walk full of internal thoughts, the guy says something (or does it), so shitty it makes Hemlock get in position to jump over him (much like Pitou), to smack the guy so hard-- Maybe what the guy does is try to joke (or even touch) a random woman/trans person on the street (that finally has Hemlock forgetting that whole talk, as well as being a metacommentary on our "though" generation, that attacks rather than ignore). Violence can be good.
I have too many ideas for Panta, so we need to pace it naturally not to allienate the reader. Also, so it can all flow better, else it would be too dense. That's a reason the story is growing out of the previously thought word count.

Make Hemlock meet a person on the street while he's having a seizure, and this person is to

ask if he is ok and whether he needs help. This might be one of the first expositions that can make the reader go "something's not right here".

Noy only with words and phrasing, but also play with punctuation. For example, if Hemlock

usually should end his internal questions with a period (as in What could it be doing here., when referring to the black plague doctor), make Lis end hers with normal question marks, as if she is asking Hemlock about stuff. Also, make Hemlock/Lis react to every time the word Lis appears, even when in longer forms such as "Listen" or "Capitalist".
Olivia feels like peeing each time she thinks too hard or after concetrating too much
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2019.08.25 16:39 MentalRope The examples of "Missing Links" that proved evolution (e.g. Lucy, Java man, etc) we were taught about years ago were all phonies.

The first of these convenient evolutionary “discoveries” was the “Neanderthal Man” found in the Neander Valley of Germany in 1856, just in time for the release of Darwin’s Origin of Species. To this day, reconstructed drawings of hairy ape-like “Neanderthal” men are depicted in scholarly journals and school textbooks and claimed to be a missing evolutionary link. The fact is, however, that all so-called Neanderthal remains have never been shown to be any more different from modern humans than an Asian from a Caucasian, or an Inuit from an Aborigine. Also the skull size shows its brain was actually 13% larger than the average brain of modern man, making it impossible to be an intermediary between man and ape. Even Time magazine in 1971 proclaimed the primitiveness of Neanderthal to be unwarranted, that he could walk the street today unrecognized, one writer even commenting that historians of the future may “declare us all insane for not detecting and refuting this incredible blunder with adequate determination.”
One of the main proponents pushing Neanderthal Man as an authentic species nowadays is Reiner Protsch, a German professor who dated the fossils at 36,000 years old allowing them to fit perfectly in the evolutionist’s timeline. In 2005, however, Protsch was forced to retire in disgrace by a panel of Frankfurt University heads who determined he had “fabricated data and plagiarized the work of his colleagues over the past 30 years.” The once-renowned “carbon-dating expert” has presently been completely ostracized from the scientific community. It has since been determined that all Neanderthal skeletal remains are no more than a few thousand years old, some only a few hundred! They have also found modern human DNA in the bones, that their brain capacity was 13% larger than the modern average, their height 5’9” comparable to our average, and they had advanced tools, buried their dead and enjoyed art!
University of Berlin Professor Rudolf Virchow, Ernst Haeckel’s former professor and the “father of modern pathology” back in 1872 concluded the original “Neanderthal” remains were simply that of an unfortunate homo sapiens who had suffered childhood rickets, adult arthritis, and was victim to several damaging blows to the head. Erik Trinkaus, a paleoanthropologist from New Mexico University concluded his examination stating, “Detailed comparisons of Neanderthal skeletal remains with those of modern humans have shown that there is nothing in Neanderthal anatomy that conclusively indicates locomotor, manipulative, intellectual, or linguistic abilities inferior to those of modern humans.”
In 1891-92, the next ape-man “discovery” was found in Java, Indonesia by Eugene Dubois, who “coincidentally” happened to be a student and apprentice of evolutionist hoaxster Ernst Haeckel! Dubois found a skullcap, a leg bone, a jaw fragment and three teeth, from which was reconstructed the ape-like “Java Man.” Within 10 years of its discovery, Java Man was the main subject of over 80 evolution books and articles. It was given the “scientific name,” of “Anthropopithecus erectus,” and later changed to “Pithecanthropus erectus” and finally “Homo erectus” undoubtedly for super-official pseudo-scientific reasons.
“Java man was discovered by a Dutchman. I’m a little embarrassed by that because I’m a Dutchman myself. His name was Eugene Dubois. The bones were found in 1891-92 on the Indonesian Island of Java in Southeast Asia along the banks of the Solo River. And there was an interesting assortment. He found a leg bone, a skullcap, a jaw fragment and three teeth. And that’s what he concocted Java man from. Interestingly enough some of the teeth were old and some young. The bones belonged to ape, female and male. It was an interesting conglomeration and the reason that people didn’t catch on to it is because the find of Dubois was kept from scholars for about 30 years. He also withheld the discovery of modern human remains, which were found in the same stratum as Java man. Of course, that would have ruined his claims that Java man was the ancestor of modern day humans. Finally, enough pressure was placed on him that the actual bones were allowed to be examined and the discrepancies were found. And eventually, enlightened America as well as the world found out that this was a hoax. Unfortunately hoaxes die hard. [Recently] Time Magazine ran a cover story entitled “How Man Became Man” and starts off ridiculing Christians and Creationists then goes on to present Java man as though it were fact.” - Hank Hanegraaff, “The Face that Demonstrates the Farce of Evolution”
“Java Man’s” teeth were found to be of different ages and the bones a mixture of human and ape, with a giant gibbon skull! Rudolph Virchow, Haeckel’s own professor and the foremost pathology expert of his time stated, “In my opinion this creature was an animal, a giant gibbon, in fact. And the thigh bone has not the slightest connection with the skull.” He and many others have concluded the thigh bone is quite clearly human while the skullcap and teeth belonged to a primate.
In 1912 a doctor and paleo-anthropologist named Charles Dawson claimed to have found a jawbone and cranial fragment of an ape-man transitional form in a pit in Piltdown, England. It was alleged to be 500,000 years old and was displayed as absolute proof of human evolution in museums across the world. For the next 40 years, scores of “scientific” articles, artist reconstructions, and over 500 doctoral theses were written about “Piltdown man.” Objections and criticisms were raised immediately by contemporaries like Arthur Keith but managed to be mitigated by Dawson until 1953 when tests proved conclusively that the Piltdown skull was actually human and only a few hundred years old, while the lower protruding jaw was from a recently deceased Orangutan!
Darwin's theory is a concept that concerns not only biology, chemistry, astronomy and metaphysics, but actually formed the basis for new political outlooks as well. Within a very short time, this new progressive political attitude was redefined as “Social Darwinism,” and as many historians have suggested, Social Darwinism became the ideological basis of fascism, communism, and eugenics. Darwin’s ideas of “natural selection” and “survival of the fittest” were central to the insane ideologies of many of the 20th century’s worst mass murderers including Mao, Stalin, Lenin, Trotsky, Marx, and Pol Pot. Charles Darwin himself was a blatant racist who elucidated in his book “The Descent of Man” how blacks and aborigines, due to their inferiority to Caucasians would “be done away with by the civilized races in time.”
Investigators found that Dawson had artificially worn down the orangutan jaw, and that the “primitive tools” discovered alongside the fossils were imitations Dawson had sharpened with steel implements! Dawson also filled the molar surfaces of the teeth to more resemble those of man, and stained all the fossils with potassium dichromate to give them an antiquated appearance. The stains quickly disappeared when dipped in acid however. Wilfred Le Gros Clark, a member of Joseph Weiner’s team who uncovered the forgery, stated that, “the evidences of artificial abrasion immediately sprang to the eye. Indeed, so obvious did they seem it may well be asked, how was it that they had escaped notice before?” Within days, Piltdown man was removed from the British Museum where it had been on display for four decades.
Since conclusively being proven a hoax in 1953 many of Dawson’s other paleontological “finds” have also proven to be fakes or planted. In 2003, Dr. Miles Russell of Bournemouth University published the results of an investigation into Dawson’s antiquarian collection concluding that at least 38 specimens were clear fakes, noting that “Dawson’s entire academic career appears to have been built upon deceit, sleight of hand, fraud and deception, the ultimate gain being international recognition.”
The next fraudulent attempt at creating and propagating a supposed ape-man transitional form was carried out in 1922 by Henry Fairfield Osborn. Co-founder of the American Eugenics Society, President of the White Supremacist Pioneer Fund and director of the American Museum of Natural History, Osborn declared that he had been sent an anomalous tooth found in Snake Brook, Nebraska, which had characteristics of both ape and man! He determined that it came from the Pliocene period of ancient history, from the transitional species “Pithecanthropus erectus,” and affectionately labeled the tooth’s owner “Nebraska Man.”
“Nebraska man was also immediately given a ‘scientific name,’ Hesperopithecus haroldcooki. Many authorities gave Osborn their support. Based on this single tooth, reconstructions of the Nebraska man’s head and body were drawn. Moreover, Nebraska man was even pictured along with his wife and children, as a whole family in a natural setting.” - Harun Yahya, “The Evolution Deceit” (95)
Once “Nebraska Man” made the media rounds of popular publications and the pliable public was sufficiently propagandised, the story disappeared until 1928 when William Bryan and William Gregory had the opportunity to independently examine the tooth. Their investigations both conclusively found that the tooth did not belong to a man or ape, but was actually from an extinct species of wild American pig called Presthennops! After William Gregory published his article, “Hesperopithecus: Apparently Not an Ape Nor a Man,” in Science magazine all drawings and models of “Nebraska Man” and his “family” were quickly removed from evolutionist publications.
Henry Osborn himself was forced to concede that Nebraska Man, “Hesperopithecus haroldcooki,” the supposed example of the “Pliocene Pithecanthropus erectus” and his whole imaginary family were completely fictional fabrications. He never admitted to intentional fraud (and why would he?), but as an ardent evolutionist, eugenicist and white supremacist, a level of confirmation bias was likely. Osborn was even such a sadistic racist that he was quoted during a national debate unabashedly saying of WWI Army intelligence tests that; “I believe those tests were worth what the war cost, even in human life … We have learned once and for all that the Negro is not like us.”
In 1927 Davidson Black declared he had discovered five crushed skulls and several teeth near Beijing belonging to an ancient ape-man species now widely known as “Peking Man.” Somewhere between 1941-1945 all the original bones were mysteriously “lost,” however, leaving only a few plaster casts left to examine! At the same site where this supposed “missing link” was found, there were also found the remains of 10 fully human skeletons who quarried nearby limestone, built fires and left behind a variety of tools. Many scientists now believe the tools were used on the Peking Man rather than by them. The back of the skulls were all bashed in and in that part of the world, monkey brains are a delicacy, so it is likely that Peking Man were actually Peking apes, and they were man’s meal, not man’s ancient ancestor.
In 1974 Donald Johansson discovered “Lucy” (Lucifer) a three-foot tall supposedly three-million year-old “Australopithicine” in Ethiopia. Widely publicized as our oldest direct human ancestor, Lucy made the usual rounds of scientific magazine journals and school textbooks. Don Johansson modestly claimed that Lucy was “the most important find made by anyone in the history of the entire human race,” and the media heralded him a hero. He was promoted from assistant professor to receiving his own Institute for Human Biology at Berkley. During all this time he never allowed scientists to examine Lucy’s bones until 1982, eight years later. Since then, and as more “Australopithecine” skeletons have been found and examined, however, many leading evolutionists agree that Lucy is simply an extinct type of ape, similar to modern pygmy chimpanzees and nothing more. They may have walked slightly more upright than most apes, but were not bipedal or erect, could not talk, spent most time in trees, and walked on all fours.
Lord Solly Zuckerman and Professor Charles Oxnard did 15 years of research on Australopithecines along with a team of five specialists coming to the conclusion that all the various specimens of Australopithecus they examined were only an ordinary ape genus and definitely not bipedal. The French Science and Life magazine ran the cover story in May 1999 “Goodbye Lucy” writing about how “Lucy” the most famous fossil of Australopithecus was not the root of the human race and needs to be removed from our supposed family tree. However, even now in 2014 a movie named “Lucy” has just been released by Masonic “Universal Pictures” where the Lucy ape-woman fraud is still treated as scientific fact throughout the entire movie.
In 1982 a skull fragment found in the Spanish town of Orce was hailed to be the oldest fossilized human remain ever found in Eurasia! “Orce man” was supposedly a 17 year old ape-man who lived between 900,000 - 1,600,000 years ago, and was presented to the world with the usual reconstructed drawings showing a young, hairy man-ape teenager. In 1983, however, a team of scientists from France concluded that the skull fragment was actually from a four-month old donkey! A three-day scientific symposium had been scheduled so experts could examine and discuss the bone, but was immediately cancelled after the French investigation; embarrassed Spanish officials sent out 500 letters to the would-be attendees apologizing. After more conclusive tests The Daily Telegraph on May 14, 1984 carried the headline “Ass Taken For Man.”
Later in 1984, Kemoya Kimeu in a team led by paleoanthropologist Richard Leakey, discovered “Turkana Boy,” at Nariokotome near Lake Turkana, Kenya. Turkana Boy was proclaimed to be a pre-teen boy from 1.5-1.6 million years ago and is now regarded as the most complete early human skeleton ever found. Much like Neanderthal Man, however, Turkana Boy or “Narikotome Homo erectus,” is no different from modern man. American paleoanthropologist Alan Walker said, “I doubt the average pathologist could tell the difference between the fossil skeleton and that of a modern human.” He wrote that he laughed upon first seeing it because “it looked so much like a Neanderthal.”
Turkana Boy was bipedal, with arms and legs of human proportions, an upright skeletal structure, comparable in height, cranial size, and development rate of modern humans. Even the discovering team-leader Richard Leakey stated that the difference between this specimen of “Homo erectus” and modern man are no more pronounced than simple racial variances: “The shape of the skull, the degree of protrusion of the face, the robustness of the brows and so on… These differences are probably no more pronounced than we see today between the separate geographical races of modern humans. Such biological variation arises when populations are geographically separated from each other for significant lengths of time.”
Source: https://www.stolenhistory.org/threads/the-evolution-deception.917/
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2019.07.06 00:14 pynchon_as_activist Gravity's Rainbow and the secret integration.

I've read Gravity's Rainbow four times and thought I understood it pretty well. However, reading Beckett's Molloy/Malone Dies/The Unnameable trilogy and the Beckett biography Damned to Fame, and a lot of Jung, and going through some difficult times made me realise how much within me that I had previously repressed. The slow process of integrating everything I was in denial about has allowed me to find peace that I never thought I would attain, having been clinically depressed and suicidal for around ten years. I started reading GR again with this new understanding of myself and realised that I actually hadn't understood it properly at all. I thought I'd share a few things I realised in case they might be of interest to any of you. I will discuss the book from a psychoanalytical perspective and a political perspective here, but I do not wish to reduce what is such a brilliant novel in its own right to these elements alone; I feel like the literary perspective has been discussed far more than these aspects though, and strongly doubt I would be able to add anything new to that excellent body of existing work. Even though I have realised that the political and psychoanalytical aspects are examined and explored very overtly in GR, I think they are often underexamined because the readers themselves haven't come to terms with their own inner conflicts, and are therefore in denial about certain things in themselves, such as their own possible complicity (through inaction or otherwise) with the System - much like Pokler. Therefore I am only going to be discussing the book within the very narrow frameworks of psychoanalysis and politics, while acknowledging that this comprises only a fraction of what it really is.
The sheer density of GR can make it hard to tell what the hell is going on even just in terms of things like the plot. But maybe this isn't such a surprise, Pynchon's intelligence and education, how long he spent writing it, and and how much research he had to do in the process. It's only after doing a lot of the background reading that he refers to that things started to come together for me. With subjects such as Pavlov's theories of conditioning, statistics, physics, engineering, Pynchon reproduces key concepts within the text. For example:
Pavlov was fascinated with “ideas of the opposite.” Call it a cluster of cells, somewhere on the cortex of the brain. Helping to distinguish pleasure from pain, light from dark, dominance from submission... . But when, somehow—starve them, traumatize, shock, castrate them, send them over into one of the transmarginal phases, past borders of their waking selves, past “equivalent” and “paradoxical” phases —you weaken this idea of the opposite, and here all at once is the paranoid patient who would be master, yet now feels himself a slave... who would be loved, but suffers his world’s indifference, and, “I think,” Pavlov writing to Janet, “it is precisely the ultraparadoxical phase which is the base of the weakening of the idea of the opposite in our patients.” Our madmen, our paranoid, maniac, schizoid, morally imbecile—
However, for much of the history, particular that regarding intelligence agencies (whether that is WWII activity such as the O.S.S. or the S.O.E., or CIA activity in the 60s and 70s around the time that Pynchon was writing GR in a Californian beach house, very near where groups such as the Black Panthers were operating, targets of programs such as COINTELPRO and Operation CHAOS), the books had not even been written yet. I think the first few pages, with the carriage full of evacuees, can be interpreted as moving into the darkest parts of lost or repressed history, e.g.:
and it is poorer the deeper they go... ruinous secret cities of poor, places whose names he has never heard..
These names he has never heard could range from the Herero tribe whose genocide he discovered while writing V. ten years before, to Novi Pazar (with the Adenoid passage), to the all other hidden history in the book. I have also read people remarking on how in The Crying of Lot 49 it seems like Pynchon was somehow aware of MK-Ultra (which Dr Hilarius was involved with) before well the documents were leaked and the program confirmed. However, fortunately, many these history books have since been written. If anyone is interested, a great place to start is The Devil's Chessboard: Allen Dulles, the CIA, and the Rise of America's Secret Government, published in 2016, which follows Dulles from his time at the Wall Street law firm Sullivan and Cromwell to his time in the O.S.S. in Switzerland, working with Nazis in Operation Paperclip, to his directorship of the CIA through the 50s and 60s. Reading about this Cold War history, and also the writing of Huey Newton (who I strongly believe Enzian is in part based on), made a lot of GR far clearer. It is important to recognise that these histories of intelligence agencies contain irrefutable documented facts that the public at large is collectively in denial about - because they are too dark for them to acknowledge and face. For them to acknowledge these facts requires integrating that darkness into their conscious minds, before anything can be done about it on the political level. I think that, through the incorporation of all the world's darkness, from politics to history to sexual and paedophilic fantasies to etc..., this is the Secret Integration that Pynchon is trying to accomplish, and which concept he wrote a story about, published in Slow Learner. Reading this book causes the beginnings of this process, as all of the darkness is brought into one's mind by reading it.
Another crucial area for me was understanding a bit about Freud and Jung. Particularly Freud's tendency to project his own incredibly powerful repression onto his patients, because of his own compulsion to analyse and differentiate everything, much in the Western tradition, seen in, for example, his five stages of psychosexual development, oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital stages. Some people don't need to delve into the darkest aspects of their unconscious to find peace, but since Freud did, he felt the need to inflict this also on his patients - seen in the many cases where he would tell victims of childhood sexual abuse that it was due to their own subconscious desires to be raped, which could, obviously, do enormous damage to his patients. His compulsion to do this might have stemmed from, alongside his overanalytical compulsions, the truth that anything we are in denial of or repress causes inner conflicts that manifest in our daily lives, and the only way to get rid of them is to integrate them into the conscious mind. Jung's equivalent of this is his statement that “until you make the unconscious conscious, it will direct your life and you will call it fate.” Jung's thinking on the unconscious, and particularly the notion of the collective unconscious - this idea that all the darkness in humanity is also within ourselves, and vice versa, much as in Daoism, another critical source for GR - is very useful to help understand the book.
An interesting thing to consider is that the old psychoanalytic approach, more directive/authoritarian (going back to Mesmer powerfully dominating his hypnotic subjects), where the analyst would attempt to integrate these repressions into the conscious mind of the patient by force, has fallen out of favour - it is now seen that the permissive style, in which the therapist tries to help the patient realise things themselves without use of force, is a much healthier approach for the average person (though there are still some cases where the directive style can be more effective). The former's effects can be seen in GR when, after many sessions with Freud, Greta's darkest parts of her unconscious mind rise up and she begins murdering children. Pynchon links Freud's repressions to trauma carried down by Jews from life under the Romans, and elsewhere, slavery under the Ancient Egyptians, which is fundamental to their religious texts (linked itself with attitudes and trauma in the black population about the more recent black slavery).
The trouble with Sigmund was the place he happened to be living in, a drafty, crenelated deformity overlooking a cold little lake in the Bavarian Alps. Parts of it must have dated back to the fall of Rome. That was where Sigmund brought her.
She had got the idea somewhere that she was part Jewish. Things in Germany by then, as everyone knows, were very bad. Margherita was terrified of being “found out.” She heard Gestapo in every puff of air that slipped in, among any of a thousand windways of dilapidation. Sigmund spent whole nights trying to talk it away. He was no better at it than Rollo. It was around this time that her symptoms began.
However psychogenic these pains, tics, hives and nauseas, her suffering was real. Acupuncturists came down by Zeppelin from Berlin, showing up in the middle of the night with little velvet cases full of gold needles. Viennese analysts, Indian holy men, Baptists from America trooped in and out of Sigmund’s castle, stage-hypnotists and Colombian curanderos slept on the rug in front of the fireplace. Nothing worked. Sigmund grew alarmed, and before long as ready as Margherita to hallucinate. Probably it was she who suggested Bad Karma. It had a reputation that summer for its mud, hot and greasy mud with traces of radium, jet black, softly bubbling. Ah. Anyone who’s been sick in that way can imagine her hope. That mud would cure anything. Where was anybody that summer before the War? Dreaming. The spas that summer, the summer Ensign Morituri came to Bad Karma, were crowded with sleepwalkers. Nothing for him to do at the Embassy. They suggested a holiday till September. He should have known something was up, but he only went on holiday to Bad Karma—spent the days drinking Pilsener Urquelle in the cafe by the lake in the Pavilion Park. He was a stranger, half the time drunk, silly beer-drunk, and he hardly spoke their language. But what he saw must have been going on all over Germany. A premeditated frenzy.
This is a similar process to what Slothrop goes through in the Abreaction Ward, when under sodium amytal ("truth serum") and the supervision of psychoanalysts, Slothrop explores the parts of his unconscious that he has repressed, including his feelings towards race and homosexuality.
PISCES: We want to talk some more about Boston today, Slothrop. You recall that we were talking last time about the Negroes, in Roxbury. Now we know it’s not all that comfortable for you, but do try, won’t you. Now—where are you, Slothrop? Can you see anything?
Slothrop: Well no, not see exactly...
By the presence of Red (Malcolm X) in the scene where Slothrop flees the black men at the jazz club trying to rape him down the toilet (which leads through a trip not only through Slothrop's own unconscious racism but also through the repressed histories, all the Preterite lost and forgotten.
Either he lets the harp go, his silver chances of song, or he has to follow. Follow? Red, the Negro shoeshine boy, waits by his dusty leather seat. The Negroes all over wasted Roxbury wait. Follow? “Cherokee” comes wailing up from the dance floor below, over the hi-hat, the string bass, the thousand sets of feet where moving rose lights suggest not pale Harvard boys and their dates, but a lotta dolled-up redskins. The song playing is one more lie about white crimes. But more musicians have floundered in the channel to “Cherokee” than have got through from end to end.
Here, among other things, if we consider Slothrop's mouth harp a (Rilke-referencing) metaphor, in part, for Pynchon's own tools of artistry, I feel like these floundering musicians can be seen as other writers who have not come to terms with the darkest parts of history, and thus their own unconscious. And the decision to delve into these things as an artist necessitates exposing one's own unconscious repressions, which causes you to be in a vulnerable position - particularly since They like to use these aspects of people to control them, as with Prentice and the drawing of the Scorpia Mossmoon lookalike he is given to activate the Kryptosam. In Pynchon's case, this means exposing his own racism and homophobia:
If Slothrop follows that harp down the toilet it’ll have to be headfirst, which is not so good, cause it leaves his ass up in the air helpless, and with Negroes around that’s just what a fella doesn’t want, his face down in some fetid unknown darkness and brown fingers, strong and sure, all at once undoing his belt, unbuttoning his fly, strong hands holding his legs apart—and he feels the cold Lysol air on his thighs as down come the boxer shorts too, now, with the colorful bass lures and trout flies on them. He struggles to work himself farther into the toilet hole as dimly, up through the smelly water, comes the sound of a whole dark gang of awful Negroes come yelling happily into the white men’s room, converging on poor wriggling Slothrop, jiving around the way they do singing, “Slip the talcum to me, Malcolm!” [*] And the voice that replies is who but that Red, the shoeshine boy who’s slicked up Slothrop’s black patents a dozen times down on his knees jes poppin’ dat rag to beat the band... now Red the very tall, skinny, extravagantly conked redhead Negro shoeshine boy who’s just been “Red” to all the Harvard fellas—“Say Red, any of those Sheiks in the drawer?” “How ’bout another luck-changin’ phone number there, Red?”—this Negro whose true name now halfway down the toilet comes at last to Slothrop’s hearing—as a thick finger with a gob of very slippery jelly or cream comes sliding down the crack now toward his asshole, chevroning the hairs along like topo lines up a river valley—the true name is Malcolm, and all the black cocks know him, Malcolm, have known him all along—Red Malcolm the Unthinkable Nihilist sez, “Good golly he sure is all asshole ain’t he?” Jeepers Slothrop, what a position for you to be in! Even though he has succeeded in getting far enough down now so that only his legs protrude and his buttocks heave and wallow just under the level of the water like pallid domes of ice. Water splashes, cold as the rain outside, up the walls of the white bowl. “Grab him ’fo’ he gits away!” “Yowzah!” Distant hands clutch after his calves and ankles, snap his garters and tug at the argyle sox Mom knitted for him to go to Harvard in, but these insulate so well, or he has progressed so far down the toilet by now, that he can hardly feel the hands at all...
GR can be seen even as a process of abreaction that Pynchon underwent. If the rumours that he used drugs through writing it are true, then that would mean exposing things in him unconscious even to himself while writing it. Worth at this point also to note Jung's criticisms of Freud's use of abreaction, and thus the possible dangers of doing this.
Though traumata of clearly aetiological significance were occasionally present, the majority of them appeared very improbable. Many traumata were so unimportant, even so normal, that they could be regarded at most as a pretext for the neurosis. But what especially aroused my criticism was the fact that not a few traumata were simply inventions of fantasy and had never happened at all.
However, as Daoism asserts, light and darkness is in everything. For the Pavlovian Pointsman, who views things in binary, this is impossible to accept - the idea that for between every extreme - like black and white - lies a spectrum, a continuous rainbow. As Western humans understand things through this differentiation and analysis, this continuity causes an inherent conflict. Pointsman, the pure cause-and-effect man, the "Antimexico" (since Mexico, the statistician who thinks all can be explained through independent variables and probability distributions, takes the opposite position), says this on Daoist thinking early on.
“Pierre Janet —sometimes the man talked like an Oriental mystic. He had no real grasp of the opposites. ‘The act of injuring and the act of being injured are joined in the behavior of the whole injury.’ Speaker and spoken-of, master and slave, virgin and seducer, each pair most conveniently coupled and inseparable—The last refuge of the incorrigibly lazy, Mexico, is just this sort of yang-yin rubbish.
But by the end of Beyond the Zero, he's having a breakdown, as his unconscious is trying to tell him the truth of the Daoist wisdom he was so quick to reject in his scientific arrogance.
“Talking to myself, here. Little—sort of—eccentricity, heh, heh.”
“Yang and Yin,” whispers the Voice, “Yang and Yin... .”
With all that out of the way, the plot of what GR is actually about can perhaps begin to be discussed. I'm going to make a lot of assumptions here that many of the male characters are based on Pynchon himself. You may disagree with this approach, which is very understandable, given my total lack of evidence. My justification for it is the following passages from Slothrop's trip down the toilet:
Here now is Crutchfield or Crouchfield, the westwardman. Not “archetypical” westwardman, but the only. Understand, there was only one. There was only one Indian who ever fought him. Only one fight, one victory, one loss. And only one president, and one assassin, and one election. True. One of each of everything. You had thought of solipsism, and imagined the structure to be populated—on your level—by only, terribly, one. No count on any other levels. But it proves to be not quite that lonely. Sparse, yes, but a good deal better than solitary. One of each of everything’s not so bad. Half an Ark’s better than none.
Then slightly later on:
Isn’t there supposed to be only one of each?
A. Yes.
Q. Then one Indian girl...
A. One pure Indian. One mestiza. One criolla. [*] Then: one Yaqui. One Navaho. One Apache—
Q. Wait a minute, there was only one Indian to begin with. The one that Crutchfield killed.
A. Yes. Look on it as an optimization problem. The country can best support only one of each.
Q. Then what about all the others? Boston. London. The ones who live in cities. Are those people real, or what?
A. Some are real, and some aren’t.
Q. Well are the real ones necessary? or unnecessary?
A. It depends what you have in mind.
Q. Shit, I don’t have anything in mind.
A. We do.
However, given the extent to which Pynchon has managed to keep his life quiet, I'm aware that this assumption could be projection from me. I think might be by design of the book though:
“Pre cise-ly why,” leaps Rozsavolgyi, “we are now proposing, to give, Slothrop a com plete- ly dif-ferent sort, of test. We are now de sign- ing for him, a so called, ‘projec-tive’ test. The most famil-iar exam- ple of the type, is the Rorschach ink-blot. The ba- sic theory, is that when given an un struc-tured stimulus, some shape-less blob of exper-ience, the subject, will seek to impose, struc- ture on it. How, he goes a -bout struc-turing this blob, will reflect his needs, his hopes—will pro vide, us with clues, to his dreams, fan- tasies , the deepest re-gions of his mind.”
With those disclaimers out the way, here's what I think. I think Mexico is the "cheap nihilist" of Pynchon as a younger man, before he's delved into his own darkness, and still very much without belief in any sort of spiritualism:
“It makes no sense unless we also consider those who’ve passed over to the other side. We do transact with them, don’t we? Through specialists like Eventyr and their controls over there. But all together we form a single subculture, a psychical community, if you will.”
“I won’t,” Mexico says dryly, “but yes I suppose someone ought to be looking into it.”
Pointsman is his analytical side, obsessed with cause-and-effect, which eventually, he comes to realise, necessitates delving in the darkest regions of Slothrop's mind, but still obsessed with control, never losing control:
Sign and symptoms. Was Spectro right? Could Outside and Inside be part of the same field? If only in fairness... in fairness... Pointsman ought to be seeking the answer at the interface... oughtn’t he... on the cortex of Lieutenant Slothrop. The man will suffer—perhaps, in some clinical way, be destroyed—but how many others tonight are suffering in his name? For pity’s sake, every day in Whitehall they’re weighing and taking risks that make his, in this, seem almost trivial. Almost. There’s something here, too transparent and swift to get a hold on—Psi Section might speak of ectoplasms—but he knows that the time has never been better, and that the exact experimental subject is in his hands. He must seize now, or be doomed to the same stone hallways, whose termination he knows. But he must remain open—even to the possibility that the Psi people are right. “We may all be right,” he puts in his journal tonight, “so may be all we have speculated, and more. Whatever we may find, there can be no doubt that he is, physiologically, historically, a monster. We must never lose control. The thought of him lost in the world of men, after the war, fills me with a deep dread I cannot extinguish...”
Prentice, the employee, the seasoned intelligence veteran, strikes me as a maturation from Pynchon's earlier Mexico phase, into a more realistic and experienced person and, by the time he gets into the Counterforce, "activist". This could be projection but given that the book was written from around the mid-60s until 1973, and how much changed in that time, I feel like this could be based on his own experiences with political activism in California around that time. Might be totally wrong about that, but I just got that impression from reading the weird "interview" towards the end of the book with the Wall Street Journal between the interviewer and the "spokesman for the Counterforce". Who knows, read it again and see what you think.
And Slothrop, the experimental subject, is a model of Pynchon himself, rather than a differentiated portion of his own psyche which he turned into a character.
So, what I think is going on:
PISCES is using Slothrop (conditioned by Jamf) to exploit the racism of the Germans in psychological warfare with the whole Schwarzkommando thing. Pointsman is following his own pathological drive to analyse every facet of Slothrop's psyche. This includes Bloat taking photographs of Slothrop's map of girls linked to rockets, which we find out later might partly be falsified, which I interpret perhaps as Pynchon's recognition of his own attempt to impose his sexual interpretation system onto the world at large - interestingly something touched on early on in Bleeding Edge, though I can't find the passage right now, he quietly references the sexual hysterias of youth or something like that.
Prentice is an employee of the Firm, a greater They than either PISCES or Pointsman, using his ability to have other people's fantasies, notionally for Pointsman, but really for some even grander scheme. This is reflected in the discussion of the message which Prentice picks up from the rocket which he and Slothrop see at the beginning of the book. From the Kryptosam message with the Scorpia lookalike:
Slowly then, a revelation through the nacreous film of his seed, in Negro-brown, comes his message: put in a simple Nihilist transposition whose keywords he can almost guess. Most of it he does in his head. There is a time given, a place, a request for help. He burns the message, fallen on him from higher than Earth’s atmosphere, salvaged from Earth’s prime meridian, keeps the picture, hmm, and washes his hands. His prostate is aching. There is more to this than he can see. He has no recourse, no appeal: he has to go over there and bring the operative out again. The message is tantamount to an order from the highest levels.
This "highest orders" thing can be compared with Slothrop seeing the hand of God pointing down at him.
There is in his history, and likely, God help him, in his dossier, a peculiar sensitivity to what is revealed in the sky. (But a hardon?) On the old schist of a tombstone in the Congregational churchyard back home in Mingeborough, Massachusetts, [*] the hand of God emerges from a cloud, the edges of the figure here and there eroded by 200 years of seasons’ fire and ice chisels at work, and the inscription reading:
In Memory of Constant
Slothrop, who died March
ye 4th 1766, in ye 29th
year of his age.
Death is a debt to nature due,
Which I have paid, and so must you.
...
6:43:16 BDST—in the sky right now here is the same unfolding, just about to break through, his face deepening with its light, everything about to rush away and he to lose himself, just as his countryside has ever proclaimed... slender church steeples poised up and down all these autumn hillsides, white rockets about to fire, only seconds of countdown away, rose windows taking in Sunday light, elevating and washing the faces above the pulpits defining grace, swearing this is how it does happen—yes the great bright hand reaching out of the cloud...
I think Pynchon recognised that with his unique abilities, perception, intelligence, and even privilege, it was his duty to delve into these hidden histories and play his role in bringing about this integration of the darkest levels of the unconscious. But Beyond the Zero is all about systems, and as Pynchon is well aware all systems are inherently limited because there are irrational elements in the world. So after this we have the briefer section in the Casino Hermann Goering, where the role of chance - or fate, depending on your interpretation - is recognised, and systems are examined, particularly language systems, like the drinking game Prince. So after that, with the third part, In the Zone, I think he may have been using drugs and various other techniques to bring out unconscious things in himself, to get past these conscious systems. And then completed with the Tarot reading performed at the end, where it says "here are the cards, exactly as they came up" - I think it's very possible that he did an actual Tarot reading at this point. Maybe I'm wrong about this though, I don't want to make too many assumptions given the lack of information we really have on him. If that thing with the drugs is true, it would explain that infamous quote Jules Seigal attributed to him, "I was so fucked up while I was writing it... that now I go back over some of those sequences and I can't figure out what I could have meant." But it's unclear whether that quote is real or not.
How does this play into politics? I've written far too much already, but I'll just leave things with a couple more quotes and the observation that the final part, the Counterforce, contains some very valid criticisms of the countercultural movement as it manifested in the 60s through 70s. There's this critical passage when Enzian is motorbiking around the Zone, high on Pervitins, and realises that everything has come together for this. There's definitely a sense that Pynchon is acknowledging here the importance of his work, the fact it has done things that no other book had before. But in it too there's also, in it, the mocking of the temptation to view everything as an ordered conspiracy, and not acknowledge the non-rational and non-causal forces also at work, and mocking of his own self-seriousness.
There doesn’t exactly dawn, no but there breaks, as that light you’re afraid will break some night at too deep an hour to explain away—there floods on Enzian what seems to him an extraordinary understanding. This serpentine slagheap he is just about to ride into now, this ex-refinery, Jamf Ölfabriken Werke AG, is not a ruin at all. It is in perfect working order. Only waiting for the right connections to be set up, to be switched on... modified, precisely, deliberately by bombing that was never hostile, but part of a plan both sides—”sides?” —had always agreed on... yes and now what if we—all right, say we are supposed to be the Kabbalists out here, say that’s our real Destiny, to be the scholar-magicians of the Zone, with somewhere in it a Text, to be picked to pieces, annotated, explicated, and masturbated till it’s all squeezed limp of its last drop... well we assumed—natürlich!—that this holy Text had to be the Rocket, orururumo orunene the high, rising, dead, the blazing, the great one (“orunene” is already being modified by the Zone-Herero children to “omunene,” the eldest brother)... our Torah. What else? Its symmetries, its latencies, the cuteness of it enchanted and seduced us while the real Text persisted, somewhere else, in its darkness, our darkness... even this far from Südwest we are not to be spared the ancient tragedy of lost messages, a curse that will never leave us... . But, if I’m riding through it, the Real Text, right now, if this is it... or if I passed it today somewhere in the devastation of Hamburg, breathing the ashdust, missing it completely... if what the IG built on this site were not at all the final shape of it, but only an arrangement of fetishes, come-ons to call down special tools in the form of 8th AF bombers yes the “Allied” planes all would have been, ultimately, IG-built, by way of Director Krupp, through his English interlocks—the bombing was the exact industrial process of conversion, each release of energy placed exactly in space and time, each shock-wave plotted in advance to bring precisely tonight’s wreck into being thus decoding the Text, thus coding, recoding, redecoding the holy Text... If it is in working order, what is it meant to do? The engineers who built it as a refinery never knew there were any further steps to be taken. Their design was “finalized,” and they could forget it. It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted... secretly, it was being dictated instead by the needs of technology... by a conspiracy between human beings and techniques, by something that needed the energy-burst of war, crying, “Money be damned, the very life of [insert name of Nation] is at stake,” but meaning, most likely, dawn is nearly here, I need my night’s blood, my funding, funding, ahh more, more... . The real crises were crises of allocation and priority, not among firms—it was only staged to look that way—but among the different Technologies, Plastics, Electronics, Aircraft, and their needs which are understood only by the ruling elite...
Yes but Technology only responds (how often this argument has been iterated, dogged and humorless as a Gaussian reduction, among the younger Schwarzkommando especially), “All very well to talk about having a monster by the tail, but do you think we’d’ve had the Rocket if someone, some specific somebody with a name and a penis hadn’t wanted to chuck a ton of Amatol 300 miles and blow up a block full of civilians? Go ahead, capitalize the T on technology, deify it if it’ll make you feel less responsible—but it puts you in with the neutered, brother, in with the eunuchs keeping the harem of our stolen Earth for the numb and joyless hardens of human sultans, human elite with no right at all to be where they are—”
We have to look for power sources here, and distribution networks we were never taught, routes of power our teachers never imagined, or were encouraged to avoid... we have to find meters whose scales are unknown in the world, draw our own schematics, getting feedback, making connections, reducing the error, trying to learn the real function... zeroing in on what incalculable plot?
Up here, on the surface, coaltars, hydrogenation, synthesis were always phony, dummy functions to hide the real, the planetary mission yes perhaps centuries in the unrolling... this ruinous plant, waiting for its Kabbalists and new alchemists to discover the Key, teach the mysteries to others...
And if it isn’t exactly Jamf Ölfabriken Werke? what if it’s the Krupp works in Essen, what if it’s Blohm & Voss right here in Hamburg or another make-believe “ruin,” in another city? Another country? YAAAGGGGHHHHH!
Well, this is stimulant talk here, yes Enzian’s been stuffing down Nazi surplus Pervitins these days like popcorn at the movies, and by now the bulk of the refinery—named, incidentally, for the famous discoverer of Oneirine—is behind them, and Enzian is on into some other paranoid terror, talking, talking, though each man’s wind and motor cuts him off from conversation.
Some words of wisdom from the seasoned veteran Prentice:
“You’re a novice paranoid, Roger,” first time Prentice has ever used his Christian name and it touches Roger enough to check his tirade. “Of course a well-developed They-system is necessary—but it’s only half the story. For every They there ought to be a We. In our case there is. Creative paranoia means developing at least as thorough a We-system as a They-system—”
“Wait, wait, first where’s the Haig and Haig, be a gracious host, second what is a ‘They-system,’ I don’t pull Chebychev’s Theorem on you, do I?”
“I mean what They and Their hired psychiatrists call ‘delusional systems.’
Needless to say, ‘delusions’ are always officially defined. We don’t have to worry about questions of real or unreal. They only talk out of expediency. It’s the system that matters. How the data arrange themselves inside it. Some are consistent, others fall apart. Your idea that Pointsman sent Gloaming takes a wrong fork. Without any contrary set of delusions—delusions about ourselves, which I’m calling a We-system—the Gloaming idea might have been all right—”
“Delusions about ourselves?”
“Not real ones.”
“But officially defined.”
“Out of expediency, yes.”
“Well, you’re playing Their game, then.”
“Don’t let it bother you. You’ll find you can operate quite well. Seeing as we haven’t won yet, it isn’t really much of a problem.”
Roger is totally confused.
And finally, amid all this darkness, in a superlatively dark book, some hope at last, to hold onto, that makes life worth living, and why I think that despite what many say, GR is not a nihilistic work at all (Tchitcherine, the born nihilist, is almost a parody of this position). It starts with Slothrop's awakening to nature:
Trees, now—Slothrop’s intensely alert to trees, finally. When he comes in among trees he will spend time touching them, studying them, sitting very quietly near them and understanding that each tree is a creature, carrying on its individual life, aware of what’s happening around it, not just some hunk of wood to be cut down. Slothrop’s family actually made its money killing trees, amputating them from their roots, chopping them up, grinding them to pulp, bleaching that to paper and getting paid for this with more paper. “That’s really insane.” He shakes his head. “There’s insanity in my family.” He looks up. The trees are still. They know he’s there. They probably also know what he’s thinking. “I’m sorry,” he tells them. “I can’t do anything about those people, they’re all out of my reach. What can I do?” A medium-size pine nearby nods its top and suggests, “Next time you come across a logging operation out here, find one of their tractors that isn’t being guarded, and take its oil filter with you. That’s what you can do.”
And then, after Slothrop's harp makes its trip down the toilet, and through all of the darkness of the book until that point, where does it next show up? After he draws a rocket mandala, scrawls Rocketman was here on a wall, after the sequence with the Magician using black magic and a mandrake to multiply money, and a delegate from the Committee on Idiopathic Archetypes shows up to visit:
Crosses, swastikas, Zone-mandalas, how can they not speak to Slothrop? He’s sat in Säure Bummer’s kitchen, the air streaming with kif moires, reading soup recipes and finding in every bone and cabbage leaf paraphrases of himself... news flashes, names of wheelhorses that will pay him off enough for a certain getaway... . He used to pick and shovel at the spring roads of Berkshire, April afternoons he’s lost, “Chapter 81 work,” they called it, following the scraper that clears the winter’s crystal attack-from-within, its white necropolizing... picking up rusted beer cans, rubbers yellow with preterite seed, Kleenex wadded to brain shapes hiding preterite snot, preterite tears, newspapers, broken glass, pieces of automobile, days when in superstition and fright he could make it all fit, seeing clearly in each an entry in a record, a history: his own, his winter’s, his country’s... instructing him, dunce and drifter, in ways deeper than he can explain, have been faces of children out the train windows, two bars of dance music somewhere, in some other street at night, needles and branches of a pine tree shaken clear and luminous against night clouds, one circuit diagram out of hundreds in a smudged yellowing sheaf, laughter out of a cornfield in the early morning as he was walking to school, the idling of a motorcycle at one duskheavy hour of the summer... and now, in the Zone, later in the day he became a crossroad, after a heavy rain he doesn’t recall, Slothrop sees a very thick rainbow here, a stout rainbow cock driven down out of pubic clouds into Earth, green wet valleyed Earth, and his chest fills and he stands crying, not a thing in his head, just feeling natural...
And later:
Slothrop moseys down the trail to a mountain stream where he’s left his harp to soak all night, wedged between a couple of rocks in a quiet pool. ... Through the flowing water, the holes of the old Hohner Slothrop found are warped one by one, squares being bent like notes, a visual blues being played by the clear stream.
There are harpmen and dulcimer players in all the rivers, wherever water moves. Like that Rilke prophesied,
And though Earthliness forget you,
To the stilled Earth say: I flow.
To the rushing water speak: I am.
It is still possible, even this far out of it, to find and make audible the spirits of lost harpmen. Whacking the water out of his harmonica, reeds singing against his leg, picking up the single blues at bar 1 of this morning’s segment, Slothrop, just suckin’ on his harp, is closer to being a spiritual medium than he’s been yet, and he doesn’t even know it.
There's hope after all, and I think it's reflected in how much more positive all his later works have been. Thanks so much for reading, I hope it was at least vaguely interesting, not too much of an unstructured ramble. Also, this is such a great subreddit, really I love the community here. My very best to you all!
submitted by pynchon_as_activist to ThomasPynchon [link] [comments]


2019.07.03 05:48 subreddit_stats Subreddit Stats: Anglicanism top posts from 2013-03-14 to 2019-07-02 17:31 PDT

Period: 2300.94 days
Submissions Comments
Total 999 16561
Rate (per day) 0.43 7.29
Unique Redditors 290 1204
Combined Score 27835 74093

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 3216 points, 142 submissions: Knopwood
    1. Church of England to hold first service in Farsi after a huge rise in converts (60 points, 2 comments)
    2. Matthew Shepard, whose 1998 murder became a symbol for the gay rights movement, will be interred at Washington National Cathedral (53 points, 37 comments)
    3. Rachel Held Evans, Voice of the Wandering Evangelical, Dies at 37 (50 points, 10 comments)
    4. First Māori woman elected bishop (49 points, 2 comments)
    5. How to Deal with Methodists at your Red Church Doors (48 points, 8 comments)
    6. Rare 700-year-old Bible returns to Canterbury Cathedral, five centuries after it was removed (43 points, 2 comments)
    7. 'Homeless Jesus' statue attracts double takes, compassion at Ottawa cathedral (40 points, 4 comments)
    8. 'No-brainer': Sydney Anglicans vote in support of allowing domestic violence survivors to remarry (40 points, 4 comments)
    9. A little levity from a Toronto parish (40 points, 0 comments)
    10. Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us : therefore let us keep the feast! (38 points, 1 comment)
  2. 2483 points, 93 submissions: bryanglican
    1. Rachel Held Evans has died (81 points, 14 comments)
    2. It’s Friday, so I hope the mods will allow me a meme. 🙏 (67 points, 8 comments)
    3. I’m in my local Catholic book store, when suddenly... (62 points, 56 comments)
    4. Marvel: 'Infinity War is the most ambitious crossover event in history' Me: (53 points, 12 comments)
    5. Bishop Michael Curry’s Full Sermon from the Royal Wedding (48 points, 76 comments)
    6. Breaking via Twitter: The Episcopal Diocese of Cuba has been re-admitted as a member of TEC and its bishop seated in the House of Bishops. (48 points, 37 comments)
    7. My wife and I are expecting our first child. Pray for us? (48 points, 18 comments)
    8. Remember a while back when I found the BCP in a Catholic book store? It’s still there, but it’s been imprisoned in a locked case! (41 points, 15 comments)
    9. TFW your baby "sings" along to the Our Father at church for the first time. (41 points, 8 comments)
    10. Why Anglo-Catholicism appeals to Millennials (41 points, 29 comments)
  3. 1357 points, 36 submissions: Bede_the_Venerable
    1. Notre Dame update: the interior appears substantially intact! (102 points, 13 comments)
    2. St David's Cathedral, Pembrokeshire, Wales. Posted solely because it's beautiful. (87 points, 6 comments)
    3. Motivation from Thomas CANmer (82 points, 11 comments)
    4. It's easy to forget in this subreddit that when you say 'Anglican' to a significant chunk of British people this is their first thought: (75 points, 39 comments)
    5. Not that this sub skews a bit Anglo-Catholic or anything... (71 points, 7 comments)
    6. You zany Episcopalians, what are you like, eh? (66 points, 70 comments)
    7. How to satisfy your Marian tendencies when your parish isn't into it: (59 points, 18 comments)
    8. This time last year we were in the middle of a cold snap up in North-East England. It did lead to some heavenly moments, though. (59 points, 13 comments)
    9. It’s a wonderful evening here, I thought I’d share it with you all. (58 points, 7 comments)
    10. I turned the list of provinces by population on Wikipedia into a pie chart. (42 points, 18 comments)
  4. 1122 points, 36 submissions: WhiteTwink
    1. When you have Baptist parents (107 points, 10 comments)
    2. When a Low Churchman visits this subreddit (80 points, 48 comments)
    3. A mystery that may never be solved (74 points, 32 comments)
    4. Ven. Archbishop Fulton Sheen (62 points, 5 comments)
    5. 10/10 would do again (48 points, 8 comments)
    6. For born unto in the City of David a savior, which is Christ the Lord. Gloria in Excelsis Deo! Christ was, and is, and is to come! (43 points, 0 comments)
    7. The real problems of church life (34 points, 8 comments)
    8. Today, one century ago the most bloody (percentage wise) war that ever ravaged our fragile home ended. Please pray for all the souls of those who lost their lives in this tragedy. (34 points, 8 comments)
    9. Are memes allowed here? (33 points, 11 comments)
    10. Happy Pentecost (33 points, 0 comments)
  5. 720 points, 24 submissions: OhioTry
    1. Archbishop Justin Welby: "It is deeply disturbing that the President of the United States has chosen to amplify the voice of far-right extremists." (138 points, 50 comments)
    2. CANA bishop denounces "prosperity gospel" heresy - Anglican Ink © 2019 (57 points, 2 comments)
    3. I stepped down as a mod last night. (meta) (55 points, 7 comments)
    4. Presiding Bishop Michael Curry was installed Sunday as the first black leader of the U.S. Episcopal Church (38 points, 2 comments)
    5. TIL that The Cathedral of St John the Divine is listed in the 1939 edition of the Negro Motorist's Green Book as a New York City institution that welcomed African American visitors. (35 points, 2 comments)
    6. Anglicans in Queensland have had enough of global warming + Australian summer. X-post from /Australia (34 points, 1 comment)
    7. Church of England demands ban on anti-gay conversion therapy (32 points, 0 comments)
    8. I'm posting the highlights real from Archbishop Welby's enthronement here because it didn't do well on /Christianity. This is a small sub, but it will be of interest to everyone here, I think. (27 points, 0 comments)
    9. The Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion) has a very active YouTube channel. (26 points, 2 comments)
    10. Confederate Flag Images Quietly Removed from Washington National Cathedral (23 points, 36 comments)
  6. 699 points, 28 submissions: WpgDipper
    1. If we do not resist evil, we do not follow Jesus: A response to Charlottesville (53 points, 9 comments)
    2. Britain’s direct complicity in the war in Yemen must end: Rowan Williams (45 points, 8 comments)
    3. Trans people are welcomed by Church of England members (43 points, 16 comments)
    4. Prince Harry and Meghan Markle ask US Presiding Bishop Michael Curry to preach at wedding (40 points, 18 comments)
    5. Went to Episcopal church today and thoroughly loved it (37 points, 7 comments)
    6. Archbishop of Canterbury on Trump-backing Christians: ’I really genuinely do not understand’ (33 points, 25 comments)
    7. Statute of Limitations on Sexual Misconduct Claims Against ECUSA Clergy to Be Suspended as of January 1 (31 points, 5 comments)
    8. How the 'Book of Common Prayer' Became a Modern Worship Album (29 points, 10 comments)
    9. Young people hear the call to rejuvenate ageing priesthood: Big rise in younger ordinands after fears that no one would replace the quarter of English Anglican vicars near retirement (29 points, 0 comments)
    10. Trump refuses to say the Apostles' Creed at the Bush funeral service (27 points, 75 comments)
  7. 538 points, 18 submissions: AnglicanPrayerMan
    1. Life as an Episcopal Franciscan Friar Starterpack (65 points, 29 comments)
    2. The faces tourists make when they see me walking in my Franciscan habit as I pass the original Mission Church (built almost 300 years ago) (47 points, 3 comments)
    3. Bishop Frank Weston's famous address to the 1923 Anglo-Catholic Congress. This is where he says, "You cannot claim to worship Jesus in the Tabernacle, if you do not pity Jesus in the slum." (46 points, 2 comments)
    4. Friary Update - One Year In (38 points, 0 comments)
    5. Update on Franciscan religious life (with pictures) (35 points, 5 comments)
    6. Today I was Subdeacon at Mass for the first time! (33 points, 8 comments)
    7. That's it! I'm done! (Sort of) (31 points, 5 comments)
    8. We’re getting to new novices! (29 points, 2 comments)
    9. I’m extremely disappointed in the lack of charity illustrated by priests and attendees at GC based off what they are saying online. (28 points, 37 comments)
    10. To the number of people recently asking what Anglicans believe (26 points, 24 comments)
  8. 472 points, 16 submissions: banqu0s_gh0st
    1. A photo inside La Sagrada Familia, Barcelona. (Taken by me) (50 points, 17 comments)
    2. Thr Queens Christmas message, its amazing (50 points, 41 comments)
    3. An interesting style of stained glass I found in York minster (44 points, 2 comments)
    4. Please pray for me (42 points, 15 comments)
    5. A Methodist church that me and my family go to when on holiday (40 points, 15 comments)
    6. What do people think of this stained glass in my local church? (39 points, 18 comments)
    7. Please pray for my persistent ear infections to stop. (26 points, 5 comments)
    8. Found this in my estate. Thought I might share :D (25 points, 8 comments)
    9. I went to another Methodist church! Lovely people and food for a coffee morning (25 points, 5 comments)
    10. I visited this lovely little Anglican church in Durham, one of the stained glass windows (22 points, 8 comments)
  9. 416 points, 12 submissions: KarlBarthMallCop
    1. To the parents of our young children, may we suggest... (127 points, 15 comments)
    2. Please pray for Rachel Held Evans (62 points, 11 comments)
    3. Friendly reminder: If you are sick, please stay home (42 points, 21 comments)
    4. I wish our church was like this. (26 points, 10 comments)
    5. Friday 🌶 Take: A social space can either be affirming or non-affirming, but it can't be neither (23 points, 42 comments)
    6. TIL Ann Davis, famous for portraying Alice on The Brady Bunch, joined an Episcopal community shortly after the show's end and remained for 38 years (23 points, 4 comments)
    7. Very Good Sourdough Pancake Recipe (21 points, 0 comments)
    8. Full Communion Proposal Ready for Methodist Bishops (20 points, 53 comments)
    9. [TEC] Who needs a copy of the Book of Common Prayer? (20 points, 27 comments)
    10. In Praise of the Lectionary (19 points, 3 comments)
  10. 376 points, 7 submissions: chaywardthgod
    1. All Anglican Priests know this feeling. (78 points, 3 comments)
    2. Hope ya’ll don’t mind a good ol’ Protestant Reformation meme! (75 points, 10 comments)
    3. I think we can all agree that an Anglican Organist is the loudest thing God ever created. (67 points, 9 comments)
    4. DROPPING ANOTHER FIRE ANGLICAN MEME!!! (66 points, 0 comments)
    5. When the congregation forgets not to say alleluia. (34 points, 11 comments)
    6. GET REKT ROMAN GUARDS (32 points, 2 comments)
    7. JESUS IS RISEN! (24 points, 0 comments)
  11. 366 points, 15 submissions: Come-My-Fanatics
    1. Church leaders offer prayer and solidarity after New Zealand mosque attacks leaves 49 dead (40 points, 0 comments)
    2. Church of England attacks Home Office for saying Christianity 'not peaceful' to reject asylum seeker (34 points, 13 comments)
    3. Presiding Bishop Michael Curry wins top broadcasting award for Royal Wedding sermon (34 points, 1 comment)
    4. Eucharistic Prayer C - Star Wars Style (29 points, 16 comments)
    5. 'Clergy in Cars’ shows feature Episcopal priests taking their faith talk on the road in Texas - Episcopal News Service (28 points, 4 comments)
    6. anglicanism_irl (26 points, 43 comments)
    7. truly we live in a society (25 points, 12 comments)
    8. On the episcopate (23 points, 45 comments)
    9. Christians face 'imminent extinction' in the Middle East, Archbishop of Canterbury warns (22 points, 8 comments)
    10. Today is the Feast Day of St. Michael and All Angels! (20 points, 1 comment)
  12. 328 points, 5 submissions: ag23thomas
    1. My wife and I were officially Confirmed into the Episcopal Church! (104 points, 33 comments)
    2. I got confirmed today! (90 points, 27 comments)
    3. Happy Trinity Sunday! (70 points, 6 comments)
    4. Happy Pentecost! (45 points, 3 comments)
    5. Do you pray to Saints? (19 points, 30 comments)
  13. 318 points, 11 submissions: VexedCoffee
    1. I'm back from my Lenten fast and I'm a deacon now! (106 points, 18 comments)
    2. Gay Marriage does pass in ACoC. There was a miscount in the order of clergy. (43 points, 33 comments)
    3. TIL that there is a tartan designed for Episcopal Clergy (25 points, 0 comments)
    4. [Video] Lambeth’s young monastic community hailed a major success (23 points, 4 comments)
    5. Cuban synod votes to return to Episcopal Church (20 points, 7 comments)
    6. Episcopal Presiding Bishop Michael Curry addresses Syrian refugee crisis: “Be not afraid!” (19 points, 1 comment)
    7. Rowan Williams Interviewed By Church Times (18 points, 2 comments)
    8. Video: Presiding Bishop Curry responds to primates’ actions (18 points, 2 comments)
    9. Bones of Thomas Becket to return to Canterbury - via Hungary (16 points, 1 comment)
    10. The Community of St Mary, an Episcopal religious order for women, is having a vocations discovery program June 3-10. (16 points, 2 comments)
  14. 316 points, 12 submissions: _dpk
    1. An Order for the Orderly Disposal of a Lemon Pig (54 points, 7 comments)
    2. Potential ongoing brigading of this sub (50 points, 79 comments)
    3. Millennials shun modern liturgy for ‘bells and smells’ [article in comments] (36 points, 20 comments)
    4. Wednesday hot-take hot take: ‘hot take’ threads are bad and the moderators should ban or restrict them (24 points, 42 comments)
    5. What are we to do about the decline of the Church? (23 points, 94 comments)
    6. How was church? (Advent II) (22 points, 31 comments)
    7. How was church (16 Sept. 2018) (21 points, 49 comments)
    8. Why is the word ‘holy’ missing from ‘one catholick and apostolick church’ in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer’s Nicene Creed? (20 points, 2 comments)
    9. Finding, not fixing: We don’t need prayer book revision in the church; we need prayer book recovery (18 points, 5 comments)
    10. How was church? (First Sunday after the Epiphany) (17 points, 26 comments)
  15. 272 points, 14 submissions: diverseandsundry
    1. [Urgent prayer request] For HM Government, Parliament and Brexit. (28 points, 14 comments)
    2. Archbishop of Dublin welcomes return of stolen crusader head. (25 points, 0 comments)
    3. Anglican Orders may not be invalid says Cardinal in charge of legislative texts. (24 points, 23 comments)
    4. Anglican Myths (20 points, 82 comments)
    5. CoE: come and confess your sins but we might have to report you to the Police (20 points, 87 comments)
    6. Living with Cranmer’s Lectionary (19 points, 8 comments)
    7. "I timed the sermon at seven minutes" - The Presiding Bishop on Radio 5 (18 points, 21 comments)
    8. Should Deplorables receive Holy Communion? (18 points, 17 comments)
    9. Today, the 21st of March, is the Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Thomas Cranmer. (18 points, 23 comments)
    10. The Apostles’ Creed - Not the Nine O’Clock News (17 points, 1 comment)
  16. 240 points, 5 submissions: TECDigitalEvangelist
    1. Would there be interest in an IAmA with Presiding Bishop Curry? (128 points, 45 comments)
    2. The first episode of Presiding Bishop Curry's new Way of Love podcast is available now. Let us know what you think! (34 points, 4 comments)
    3. Someone in another thread hoped for a group of BCP prayers read by Presiding Bishop Curry, like the one in yesterday's @PB_Curry tweet. We have them all collected here. (29 points, 0 comments)
    4. An Invitation to Eucharist - Preview of the How2charist: Digital Instructed Eucharist (26 points, 47 comments)
    5. In the Philadelphia area? The Episcopal Church is looking for folks to join filming for a Digital Instructed Eucharist on Sat., August 25. (23 points, 7 comments)
  17. 236 points, 6 submissions: Flaxmoore
    1. The strange moment of "I am Episcopalian." A thought moment for the converts. (61 points, 23 comments)
    2. Episcopal Church handling allegations of sexual abuse right- open the doors, punish the wrongdoers, no matter how long ago! (48 points, 8 comments)
    3. Being Received as an Episcopalian, considering making it formal. (43 points, 25 comments)
    4. Diocese of Michigan starts Pride Month with a bang- elects Bonnie A. Perry, a happily married lesbian, as 11th bishop (40 points, 62 comments)
    5. Can my wife and the church Search Committee get some prayer? They're interviewing a new priest tonight. (22 points, 2 comments)
    6. Hanging on to my Patron Saint, despite crossing over to the Episcopal side of things. (22 points, 39 comments)
  18. 235 points, 3 submissions: jerzeyjohn
    1. Trinity Episcopal Church (Columbus, OH) (86 points, 6 comments)
    2. Christ Church Cathedral (Nashville, TN) (81 points, 2 comments)
    3. Trinity Episcopal Church (Princeton, NJ) (68 points, 12 comments)
  19. 231 points, 7 submissions: abhd
    1. I attended an Episcopal Inquiry class tonight and they gave me a new BCP and a Walk In Love! (93 points, 10 comments)
    2. Diocese of Chicago Convention text on Resolution G-181: Affirmation of the Inherent Dignity of Transgender and Nonbinary Persons as beloved by God (30 points, 41 comments)
    3. Presiding Bishop’s Pride Month statement honors LGBTQ Episcopalians (25 points, 2 comments)
    4. CNY Episcopal Bishop: Gay marriages still welcome here despite Albany bishop's refusal (23 points, 7 comments)
    5. The Only Way We'll Survive This Thanksgiving (22 points, 1 comment)
    6. [META] Let's give a warm welcome to our new mods! (22 points, 29 comments)
    7. Episcopal Church’s advocacy for LGBTQ people pre-dates Stonewall uprising (16 points, 1 comment)
  20. 226 points, 9 submissions: CiderDrinker
    1. I think I've just been 'born again' after 20 years of completely missing the point. (43 points, 16 comments)
    2. Seven things I like about Anglicanism (feel free to add your own). (38 points, 28 comments)
    3. Anglicans for Christian Socialism (28 points, 106 comments)
    4. Happy Commonwealth Day to all of those who are Commonwealth citizens. (The vast majority of Anglicans worldwide are.) (25 points, 12 comments)
    5. A quick reflection on Notre Dame (22 points, 6 comments)
    6. An Evangelical Anglican, Liberal Anglican, Reformed Anglican, and Catholic Anglican in discussion on what divides and what unites them. (21 points, 25 comments)
    7. Being Anglican and republican (in the 'no king' sense, not the GOP sense) (17 points, 16 comments)
    8. Eucharist is a dangerous thing (16 points, 0 comments)
    9. Livestream of Rachel Held Evans' funeral. Nadia Bolz-Weber preaching; Winnie Verghese presiding. (16 points, 3 comments)
  21. 212 points, 7 submissions: phil701
    1. broadchurch.jpeg (84 points, 10 comments)
    2. Who are some cool people that others might not know are/were Anglican? (25 points, 59 comments)
    3. Friday Hot Take: Praying to saints should be a fully established and integrated part of liturgy. (23 points, 68 comments)
    4. The results of the Marian Survey, for those who want them. Scroll past the questions, select Submit, and then See Previous Responses. (22 points, 50 comments)
    5. A stupid question perhaps: Why do priests wear robes, garments etc. when Jesus wore poor man's clothes? (20 points, 26 comments)
    6. TIL of the Inclusive Orthodoxy movement, which seeks to combine Same Sex Marriage and Ordination of Women with the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic faith. It is led by Episcopal Clergyman Justin R. Cannon. (20 points, 26 comments)
    7. I made a quick survey for your guys' beliefs on Mary, Jesus' Mother. I'd appreciate some input. (18 points, 19 comments)
  22. 204 points, 4 submissions: revtrev92
    1. Praise God! #doxology (62 points, 5 comments)
    2. Worship with a baptism today at my local E.C. parish in Ashland, Kentucky. I took this picture 10 minutes before service so it doesn’t do the crowd justice. Great crowd, great service! (57 points, 12 comments)
    3. Mid-Week Chapel at my Local Parish (56 points, 4 comments)
    4. Conservative Episcopalians? (29 points, 46 comments)
  23. 203 points, 4 submissions: such_reddit_wow
    1. Happy Ascension Day! (70 points, 8 comments)
    2. Happy Ascension Day! (56 points, 11 comments)
    3. Weather Forecast but It's in Anglican Chant (51 points, 3 comments)
    4. Merry Christmas! (26 points, 5 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. bryanglican (4944 points, 969 comments)
  2. Bede_the_Venerable (2225 points, 341 comments)
  3. Come-My-Fanatics (1839 points, 254 comments)
  4. menschmaschine5 (1641 points, 383 comments)
  5. OhioTry (1570 points, 456 comments)
  6. yibanghwa (1486 points, 282 comments)
  7. Knopwood (1345 points, 277 comments)
  8. diverseandsundry (984 points, 211 comments)
  9. chillenchillada (974 points, 304 comments)
  10. Cwross (891 points, 199 comments)
  11. KarlBarthMallCop (841 points, 107 comments)
  12. ErikRogers (791 points, 199 comments)
  13. Auto_Fac (783 points, 126 comments)
  14. tauropolis (762 points, 128 comments)
  15. milburncreek (721 points, 189 comments)
  16. WpgDipper (695 points, 220 comments)
  17. DicitEiPilatus (688 points, 110 comments)
  18. TotalInstruction (667 points, 90 comments)
  19. keakealani (661 points, 141 comments)
  20. WhiteTwink (614 points, 159 comments)
  21. KonradX (591 points, 121 comments)
  22. liliesofthefield (581 points, 89 comments)
  23. VexedCoffee (552 points, 118 comments)
  24. themsc190 (496 points, 74 comments)
  25. candydaze (493 points, 90 comments)
  26. PersisPlain (489 points, 113 comments)
  27. palaeologos (480 points, 160 comments)
  28. primitive_thisness (458 points, 150 comments)
  29. gnurdette (453 points, 45 comments)
  30. CiderDrinker (432 points, 81 comments)
  31. AnglicanPrayerMan (419 points, 68 comments)
  32. Machinax (407 points, 53 comments)
  33. texanmason (405 points, 90 comments)
  34. BrotherHausel (375 points, 66 comments)
  35. tryingforsomething (361 points, 105 comments)
  36. bobo_brizinski (359 points, 74 comments)
  37. Ghibellines (351 points, 87 comments)
  38. elrealvisceralista (333 points, 79 comments)
  39. sl150 (331 points, 44 comments)
  40. revdeac06 (328 points, 60 comments)
  41. icantbelieveibelieve (323 points, 58 comments)
  42. phil701 (313 points, 56 comments)
  43. steph-anglican (305 points, 161 comments)
  44. cnumbers (288 points, 56 comments)
  45. Sacerdotal (280 points, 44 comments)
  46. number9muses (271 points, 34 comments)
  47. RingGiver (260 points, 39 comments)
  48. your_cheese_girl (259 points, 38 comments)
  49. grameno (258 points, 41 comments)
  50. SoWhatDidIMiss (256 points, 35 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. Archbishop Justin Welby: "It is deeply disturbing that the President of the United States has chosen to amplify the voice of far-right extremists." by OhioTry (138 points, 50 comments)
  2. Would there be interest in an IAmA with Presiding Bishop Curry? by TECDigitalEvangelist (128 points, 45 comments)
  3. To the parents of our young children, may we suggest... by KarlBarthMallCop (127 points, 15 comments)
  4. When you have Baptist parents by WhiteTwink (107 points, 10 comments)
  5. I'm back from my Lenten fast and I'm a deacon now! by VexedCoffee (106 points, 18 comments)
  6. My wife and I were officially Confirmed into the Episcopal Church! by ag23thomas (104 points, 33 comments)
  7. I was confirmed in the beautiful Ely cathedral yesterday :) by harryeu2 (104 points, 7 comments)
  8. Notre Dame update: the interior appears substantially intact! by Bede_the_Venerable (102 points, 13 comments)
  9. Get Your Ash In Church by bmcginnis47 (98 points, 6 comments)
  10. I attended an Episcopal Inquiry class tonight and they gave me a new BCP and a Walk In Love! by abhd (93 points, 10 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 59 points: CalicoJack's comment in Trump refuses to say the Apostles' Creed at the Bush funeral service
  2. 58 points: Machinax's comment in Can we welcome and full include LGBT people in the church without allowing same sex marriage?
  3. 54 points: Come-My-Fanatics's comment in Can we welcome and full include LGBT people in the church without allowing same sex marriage?
  4. 52 points: deleted's comment in Is God male? The Episcopal Church debates whether to change its Book of Common Prayer.
  5. 48 points: Auto_Fac's comment in [ECUSA] Anyone else feel like “Jesus Movement” and “The Way of Love” are Boomer speak that won’t connect with younger people?
  6. 48 points: Come-My-Fanatics's comment in Conservative Episcopalians?
  7. 47 points: CiderDrinker's comment in What Are the "Tribes" Of Anglicanism?
  8. 47 points: Omaestre's comment in Justin Welby's envoy to Rome denied Christ's bodily resurrection
  9. 47 points: sl150's comment in Potential ongoing brigading of this sub
  10. 46 points: TotalInstruction's comment in Justin Welby's envoy to Rome denied Christ's bodily resurrection
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]


2019.06.17 02:45 pawloka [OC] Monday Night Wars in a new light - lesser known stats

We all know this chart by heart. It’s a rite of passage for every new wrestling fan to know which point symbolizes what – Lex Luger returning. Madusa jumping the ship. The Curtain Call. New World Order forming. Pillman pulling a gun. Bret screwing Bret. The rise of Stone Cold Steve Austin and The Rock. Goldberg’s streak ending. And finally – Mankind putting our butts in the seats.
Much of the narrative is driven by those Nielsen ratings and rightfully so – a war for the viewers and wrestling supremacy was fought every single Monday night. However, some trends were felt by the viewers during that time: is Nitro showcasing only old-timers? Are Raw wrestlers getting younger? Doesn’t WWF have a better in-ring product? Is everyone jumping the ship suddenly? I tried to derive those statistics and see if it is truly the case.

Few notes

Stats

Age

(many thanks to _onionwizard for the idea)

Average and median age

There is a reason to think Raw more often featured younger talent than Nitro – because it was.
This chart shows the average age of wrestlers performing on the shows. 228 events could be directly compared: out of those, Raw featured younger talent 189 times (83% of the time). During the Wars, average age of a Raw wrestler was 31.46 – its Nitro counterpart was two years older (33.5) even though Nitro popularized utilizing cruiserweights who usually are younger than main event heavyweights.
As for median age, this chart tells the exact same story. Except for the stretch from April ’97 to September ’97, Raw was consistently featuring younger talent.
So, what about the same statistics for Smackdown! and Thunder? After all, those shows weren’t created just to ride the wave of sudden wrestling popularity – they were also the chance for underutilized wrestlers to perform on national television.
Once again, the story presented in the chart stays the same. Smackdown! aired its first televised special over a year after Thunder’s pilot episode – however, once they were airing consistently on every Thursday night the competition in average age wasn’t really a contest. Smackdown!’s youngest show was on 15th of June with the average age of 27.82. Coincidentally, Thunder’s youngest show happened just two months later with the average age of 27.9.
As for PPVs, I can’t even think of an interesting segue. Once again, WWF PPVs were simply younger. Their oldest show was King of the Ring ’97 – average age of 34.62. In comparison, WCW’s oldest show was their first one after beginning the Wars – SuperBrawl V with the average age of 37.55. WWF’s youngest show was In Your House 4 (29.79), featuring The British Bulldog winning by disqualification against the WWF Champion Diesel. As for WCW, their youngest event was aptly named New Blood Rising (30.38) from late 2000. Amongst some younger stars on that show were Shawn Stasiak, Chuck Palumbo and a pornographic actress Major Gunns.

Oldest and youngest wrestlers

So, who the hell is bringing those averages up? Who is trying to keep them down? Let’s start with Raw.
Oldest
Raw
Wrestler Stretches Ages
Kevin Nash 1995-9-4, 1995-12-25, 1996-1-29 36
Scott Hall 1995-9-11 to 1995-9-18, 1995-10-9, 1995-10-30, 1995-11-13, 1995-12-4, 1995-12-18, 1996-2-19 36-37
Marty Jannetty 1995-9-25, 1996-1-8, 1996-4-29, 1996-7-1 35-36
Bret Hart 1995-10-2, 1995-10-16, 1996-2-5, 1996-3-4, 1996-11-25, 1996-12-23, 1997-3-25, 1997-4-21, 1997-7-7, 1997-10-20 to 1997-10-21 38-40
King Kong Bundy 1995-10-23 37
Jerry Lawler 1995-11-6, 1996-4-8, 1996-8-5, 1996-10-14, 1996-12-30, 1997-1-13, 1997-5-26, 1997-6-16, 1997-11-11, 1997-12-9, 2000-6-26, 2000-9-4, 2000-11-6, 2000-12-11 45-51
Shawn Michaels 1995-11-20 30
Alundra Blayze 1995-11-27 32
Bob Backlund 1995-12-11 46
Tony Norris 1996-1-1 30
Vader 1996-1-22, 1996-4-22, 1996-5-13, 1996-5-27, 1996-6-24, 1996-7-8, 1996-7-29, 1996-9-23, 1996-12-16, 1997-1-6, 1997-1-27 to 1997-2-17, 1997-2-26 to 1997-3-17, 1997-4-7 to 1997-4-14, 1997-4-28 to 1997-5-5, 1997-6-23 to 1997-6-30, 1997-7-21 to 1997-9-8, 1997-9-23, 1997-11-3, 1997-11-24 to 1997-12-8, 1998-1-12, 1998-8-10, 1998-9-29 40-43
Jake Roberts 1996-2-26, 1996-3-18, 1996-5-20, 1996-6-3, 1996-6-17, 1996-9-2 40-41
Davey Boy Smith 1996-3-11 33
Al Snow 1996-3-25 32
Dr Tom Prichard 1996-4-1, 1996-5-6 36
Marc Mero 1996-4-15, 1996-6-10, 1996-7-15, 1996-10-7, 1997-11-10, 1997-12-11, 1998-6-29, 1998-10-20 35-38
Bill Irwin 1996-7-22, 1996-12-2 41-42
Jim Neidhart 1996-8-12, 1997-5-19, 1997-6-9 41-42
Butch Miller 1996-8-19 51
Ron Simmons 1996-8-26, 1996-11-18, 1997-1-20, 1997-6-2, 1997-12-30, 1998-7-14, 1998-12-1, 1998-12-15, 1999-1-26, 1999-2-15, 1999-3-22, 1999-4-12 to 1999-4-13, 1999-5-24, 1999-6-29, 1999-7-13 to 1999-7-26, 1999-8-9 to 1999-8-30, 1999-9-13, 1999-10-18, 1999-11-22, 1999-12-13, 1999-12-27, 2000-1-10 to 2000-1-24, 2000-2-7, 2000-2-21 to 2000-2-28, 2000-3-13 to 2000-3-20, 2000-4-17, 2000-5-15, 2000-7-3, 2000-7-17, 2000-7-31 to 2000-8-7, 2000-8-21 to 2000-8-28, 2000-9-11, 2000-10-16, 2000-12-22 to 2000-12-29, 2001-1-15 to 2001-1-29 38-42
Jose Lothario 1996-9-30 61
Sid 1996-10-21, 1996-11-11 36
Tracy Smothers 1996-10-28 34
Barry Windham 1996-11-4 36
Zeb Colter 1996-12-9 47
Road Warrior Hawk 1997-2-24, 1997-5-12, 1997-9-9 to 1997-9-22, 1997-10-6 to 1997-10-7, 1998-2-9, 1998-11-2, 1999-3-29 39-41
Steve Lombardi 1997-3-24 35
Brian Adams 1997-4-21 34
Ivan Putski 1997-7-14 56
George Steele 1997-12-29, 1999-1-25 60-61
Terry Funk 1998-1-19 to 1998-2-2, 1998-2-16, 1998-3-2 to 1998-3-30, 1998-4-13 to 1998-5-11, 1998-6-1, 1998-6-15, 1998-6-30 53-54
Ricky Morton 1998-2-17 41
Dan Severn 1998-3-31, 1998-5-19, 1998-6-2, 1998-6-16, 1998-7-13, 1998-7-27 to 1998-7-28, 1998-8-11 to 1998-8-24, 1998-9-28 43-44
Pat Patterson 1998-5-18, 1998-12-29, 1999-1-12, 1999-3-15, 1999-5-2 to 1999-5-10, 1999-6-14 to 1999-6-21, 1999-9-6, 2000-5-8 57-59
Ken Shamrock 1998-9-14 34
Sergeant Slaughter 1998-9-15 50
Road Warrior Animal 1998-10-12 to 1998-10-19, 1998-11-16 38
Steve Blackman 1998-11-3, 2000-10-2, 2001-3-19 35-37
Duane Gill 1998-11-17 to 1998-11-30 39
The Godfather 1998-12-14, 1999-3-2, 1999-3-30, 1999-6-28, 1999-7-12, 1999-11-8 to 1999-11-15, 1999-12-6, 2000-7-24, 2000-8-14, 2000-9-18, 2000-10-9, 2000-10-30, 2001-3-12 37-39
Big Boss Man 1998-12-28, 1999-4-26, 1999-7-27, 1999-11-1, 1999-11-29, 2000-4-24, 2000-5-22, 2000-6-19 37-39
Vince McMahon 1999-1-11, 1999-2-8, 1999-5-31 to 1999-6-7, 2000-3-27, 2000-6-12, 2000-12-18, 2001-2-26 53-55
Ted Petty 1999-2-16 45
Debra 1999-3-1, 1999-9-20 39
Michael Hayes 1999-5-11 40
Mae Young 1999-9-28 to 1999-10-11, 1999-12-20, 2000-1-3 76
The Fabulous Moolah 1999-10-25 76
Bob Holly 2000-1-31, 2000-4-3 37
Dean Malenko 2000-2-14, 2000-3-6, 2000-4-10, 2000-5-29, 2000-11-13 to 2000-12-4 39-40
Ivory 2000-5-1 38
Gerald Brisco 2000-6-5 53
Rikishi 2000-7-10, 2000-9-25 34
Raven 2000-10-23 36
Theodore Long 2001-1-8 53
Haku 2001-2-5, 2001-2-19, 2001-3-5 42
Billy Gunn 2001-2-12 37
Steve Austin 2001-3-26 36
Quite unsurprisingly, the oldest performers were Mae Young and The Fabulous Moolah. Most consistently the oldest wrestler was Ron Simmons with a four-year stretch. The youngest oldest wrestler was Tony Norris at just 30.
Nitro
Wrestler Stretches Ages
Ric Flair 1995-9-4, 1995-9-18, 1995-10-2 to 1995-10-16, 1995-12-18 to 1996-1-29, 1996-2-26 to 1996-3-11, 1996-3-25 to 1996-4-29, 1996-5-13 to 1996-6-17, 1996-7-8, 1996-7-29 to 1996-8-12, 1996-8-26 to 1996-9-2, 1996-9-16, 1997-5-19, 1997-6-2 to 1997-6-9, 1997-6-28 to 1997-6-30, 1997-7-14 to 1997-8-18, 1997-9-8, 1997-10-27, 1997-11-10, 1997-12-15, 1998-1-12, 1998-2-23, 1998-3-9, 1998-12-28, 1999-1-11, 1999-1-25, 1999-2-8, 1999-3-8 to 1999-3-22, 1999-4-5 to 1999-4-19, 1999-5-3 to 1999-5-24, 1999-6-14 to 1999-6-21, 1999-7-12 to 1999-7-19, 1999-9-20 to 1999-9-27, 1999-10-11, 2000-2-28 to 2000-3-6, 2000-3-20, 2000-4-10, 2001-3-26 46-52
Randy Savage 1995-9-11, 1995-10-23, 1995-11-13, 1995-12-4, 1996-5-6, 1996-8-19, 1997-3-24, 1997-7-7, 1997-8-25 to 1997-9-1, 1997-9-22, 1997-11-24, 1997-12-8, 1997-12-22, 1998-1-5, 1998-1-19, 1998-2-2, 1998-2-16, 1998-3-2, 1998-3-23 to 1998-3-30, 1998-4-20, 1998-5-11, 1998-6-15, 1999-4-26, 1999-5-31 to 1999-6-7 42-46
Kevin Sullivan 1995-9-25, 1995-11-6, 1996-2-5, 1996-6-24, 1996-7-22, 1996-9-23, 1996-12-2, 1996-12-16, 1997-1-6, 1997-1-20 to 1997-1-27, 1997-2-10 to 1997-2-17, 1997-3-10, 1997-4-7 45-47
Scott Norton 1995-10-30, 1998-4-27 37-39
Hulk Hogan 1995-11-20 to 1995-11-27, 1997-12-29, 1998-8-24 to 1998-8-31, 1998-9-28, 1998-10-12, 1999-1-4, 1999-2-15, 1999-3-29, 1999-7-26, 1999-8-9 to 1999-9-13, 2000-5-1, 2000-5-22 42-46
Paul Orndorff 1995-12-11, 1999-12-13 46-50
Giant Haystacks 1996-2-12 to 1996-2-19, 1996-3-18 49
Bruno Sammartino 1996-7-1 60
Dick Slater 1996-7-15 45
Ted Petty 1996-9-9, 1996-9-30 to 1996-10-7, 1996-12-23, 1997-2-24, 1997-4-14 to 1997-4-21, 1997-5-5, 1997-6-16 to 1997-6-23, 1998-4-13, 1998-5-4, 1998-6-1, 1998-6-22, 1998-7-6 43-44
Greg Valentine 1996-10-14, 1996-12-30 45
Roadblock 1996-10-21, 1997-3-31 44
Diamond Dallas Page 1996-10-28, 1996-11-25, 1996-12-9, 1997-2-3, 1997-9-29 to 1997-10-13, 1997-11-17, 1997-12-1, 1998-7-20, 1998-8-17, 1998-9-21, 1998-10-5, 1998-10-19 to 1998-10-26, 1998-11-30 to 1998-12-7, 1999-6-28 to 1999-7-5, 1999-8-2, 1999-10-25, 1999-12-20, 2000-1-17, 2000-11-27 to 2000-12-11, 2001-1-8, 2001-1-22 to 2001-2-5, 2001-2-19 to 2001-3-12 40-44
Hector Guerrero 1996-11-4 42
Lex Luger 1996-11-11 to 1996-11-18, 1998-5-18, 2000-10-30, 2000-11-10 38-42
Jim Duggan 1997-1-13, 1998-7-13, 1998-7-27 to 1998-8-10, 1999-12-27, 2000-6-26, 2000-9-18, 2000-10-13, 2000-11-20 43-46
Roddy Piper 1997-3-3, 1998-9-7, 1999-11-29 42-45
Bunkhouse Buck 1997-3-17 46
Steve McMichael 1997-4-28, 1997-5-12, 1997-10-20, 1998-11-16 39-41
Jim Powers 1997-5-26 39
Chris Adams 1997-9-15, 1999-2-1 42-44
Chavo Guerrero Sr 1997-11-3, 1998-2-9 48-49
Jim Neidhart 1998-1-26, 1998-4-6, 1998-6-29 42-43
Michael Buffer 1998-3-16 53
Jimmy Hart 1998-5-4, 1999-11-15 55-56
Dave Fit Finlay 1998-5-25, 1998-6-8, 1998-11-2, 1998-12-21 40
The Barbarian 1998-9-14 40
Bret Hart 1998-11-9, 1998-11-23, 1999-2-22 to 1999-3-1, 1999-10-18, 1999-11-8, 1999-11-22 41-42
Al Green 1998-12-14 43
Eric Bischoff 1999-1-18 43
Harley Race 1999-10-4 56
Stevie Ray 1999-11-1, 2000-7-17, 2000-9-4 41-42
Larry Zbyszko 1999-12-6 46
Mike Rotundo 2000-1-3 41
George Steele 2000-1-10 62
Terry Funk 2000-1-24 to 2000-2-21, 2000-3-13, 2000-3-27, 2000-4-17 to 2000-4-24, 2000-5-8 to 2000-5-15, 2000-5-29 to 2000-6-12, 2000-7-3, 2000-12-18 55-56
Kevin Nash 2000-6-19, 2000-8-21 to 2000-8-28, 2000-10-7, 2001-1-15, 2001-2-12 40-41
Brian Adams 2000-7-10, 2000-7-24 37
Sting 2000-7-31 to 2000-8-14, 2000-9-11, 2000-9-25, 2000-11-6 41
Haku 2000-10-2 41
Don Harris 2000-10-23 39
Rick Steiner 2001-3-19 41
First, the table is much shorter. It is populated by names that shouldn’t really surprise anybody – amongst the “leaders” we have Ric Flair, Randy Savage, DDP. However, despite being in his 40s, Hulk Hogan does relatively well – on only 15 shows was he the oldest wrestler.
WWF PPVs
Wrestler Stretches Ages
Dan Spivey 1995-9-24 42
Scott Hall 1995-10-22 37
Jerry Lawler 1995-11-19, 1996-5-26, 1996-6-23, 1996-8-18, 1997-6-8, 1998-6-28, 2000-8-27 to 2000-9-24, 2001-2-25 46-51
Hillbilly Jim 1995-12-17 43
Dory Funk Jr 1996-1-21 54
Jake Roberts 1996-2-18, 1996-4-28 40
Roddy Piper 1996-3-31 41
Vader 1996-5-28, 1996-7-21, 1996-10-20, 1997-2-16 to 1997-3-23, 1997-5-11, 1997-7-6, 1997-9-20 to 1997-10-5, 1998-9-27 41-43
Jose Lothario 1996-9-22 61
Jimmy Snuka 1996-11-17 53
Bret Hart 1996-12-15, 1997-8-3 39-40
Mil Mascaras 1997-1-19 54
Road Warrior Hawk 1997-4-20, 1997-9-7 39-40
Jim Neidhart 1997-11-9 42
Sergeant Slaughter 1997-12-7 49
Terry Funk 1998-1-18 to 1998-3-29, 1998-7-26 53-54
Ricky Morton 1998-4-26 41
Vince McMahon 1998-5-31, 1999-1-24 to 1999-2-14, 1999-6-27 52-53
Marc Mero 1998-8-30 38
Paul Ellering 1998-10-18 45
Duane Gill 1998-11-15 39
Gerald Brisco 1998-12-6 52
The Godfather 1998-12-13, 2000-10-22 37-39
Big Boss Man 1999-3-28 37
Ron Simmons 1999-4-25 to 1999-5-16, 1999-7-25, 1999-9-26 to 1999-10-2, 2000-4-2 to 2000-4-30, 2000-7-23 40-42
Mr Mcmahon 1999-5-23 53
Jesse Ventura 1999-8-22 48
The Fabulous Moolah 1999-10-17 76
Mae Young 1999-11-14 to 2000-1-23 76
Dean Malenko 2000-2-27, 2000-5-6 to 2000-5-21, 2000-11-19 to 2000-12-10 39-40
Pat Patterson 2000-6-25 59
Honky Tonk Man 2001-1-21 48
PPVs usually showcase more of the established performers and WWF isn't an exception. Marc Mero and Duane Gill are two most surprising entries.
WCW PPVs
Wrestler Stretches Ages
Ric Flair 1995-9-17 to 1995-10-29, 1996-5-19 to 1996-9-15, 1997-5-18 to 1997-11-23, 1998-1-24 to 1998-1-31, 1998-4-2, 1998-12-27 to 1999-6-13, 1999-10-24, 2000-6-11 46-51
Black Bart 1995-11-26 47
Masa Saito 1995-12-27 54
Kevin Sullivan 1996-2-11, 1996-11-24, 1997-2-23, 1999-12-19 46-50
Giant Haystacks 1996-3-24 49
Hulk Hogan 1996-10-27, 1997-1-25, 1998-7-10 to 1998-7-12, 1998-9-13 to 1998-10-25, 1999-9-12, 2000-7-9 43-46
Lee Marshall 1996-12-29, 1997-4-6 47
Randy Savage 1997-3-16, 1997-12-28, 1998-2-22 to 1998-3-15, 1998-4-19, 1998-5-17 to 1998-6-14, 1999-8-14 44-46
Diamond Dallas Page 1998-5-2, 2001-2-18 42-44
Jay Leno 1998-8-8 48
Chris Adams 1998-11-22 43
Mills Lane 1999-7-11 62
Bret Hart 1999-11-21 42
Terry Funk 2000-1-16 to 2000-3-19, 2000-5-7, 2000-12-17 to 2001-1-14 55-56
Jimmy Hart 2000-4-16, 2000-11-26 57
Sting 2000-8-13 41
Paul Orndorff 2000-9-17 50
Jim Duggan 2000-10-29 46
Dave Fit Finlay 2000-11-16 42
Dusty Rhodes 2001-3-18 55
Trio of Flair, Savage and Hogan were most frequently the oldest PPV performers which, again, shouldn't be particularly surprising. I like Jay Leno hanging in there with the boys, though.
Youngest
Raw
Wrestler Stretches Ages
Scott Taylor 1995-9-4 to 1995-9-11, 1996-4-29, 1997-5-19, 1997-6-23, 1997-12-11, 1998-1-12, 1998-6-15 22-24
Sean Waltman 1995-9-18, 1995-11-20, 1995-12-25, 1996-2-5, 1996-3-4, 1996-5-6, 1996-5-20, 1998-10-12 to 1998-10-19, 1999-3-1 23-26
Chris Candido 1995-9-25, 1995-10-9, 1996-1-29, 1996-5-27, 1996-6-10, 1996-8-12, 1996-9-23, 1997-6-16 23-25
Kelly Wolfe 1995-10-2 21
Johnny Swinger 1995-10-16, 1995-10-30 20
Justin Credible 1995-10-23, 1996-1-1, 1996-2-19, 1996-3-25 to 1996-4-1, 1996-4-22, 1996-5-13, 1996-6-17 to 1996-6-24, 1996-8-5, 1996-10-7, 1996-10-28, 1997-3-10 22-23
Rhyno 1995-11-6 20
Viscera 1995-11-13 23
John Crystal 1995-11-27 20
Rikishi 1995-12-4 30
Jeff Hardy 1995-12-11, 1997-2-17, 1997-5-12, 1997-10-6, 1999-5-11 to 1999-5-24, 1999-6-29 to 1999-7-13, 1999-8-30 to 1999-9-6, 1999-9-20, 1999-10-4 to 1999-10-11, 1999-11-1, 1999-11-22, 1999-12-6 to 2000-1-24, 2000-2-21 to 2000-2-28, 2000-3-13 to 2000-3-27, 2000-4-10 to 2000-7-31, 2000-8-14 to 2000-8-21, 2000-9-11, 2000-9-25 to 2000-10-16, 2000-10-30 to 2000-11-13, 2000-12-4 to 2001-1-29, 2001-2-12 to 2001-2-19, 2001-3-5 to 2001-3-19 18-23
Jeff Jarrett 1995-12-18 28
Matt Hardy 1996-1-8, 2000-1-31, 2000-3-6, 2001-2-5 21-26
Triple H 1996-1-22, 1996-4-8, 1996-6-3, 1996-12-9, 1996-12-30, 1997-6-2, 1997-10-21 26-28
Kane 1996-2-26 28
Alex Porteau 1996-3-11, 1996-9-2, 1996-10-14 26
Dustin Rhodes 1996-3-18, 1996-4-15, 1996-7-22, 1996-8-19, 1997-1-31, 1997-5-5, 1997-9-23, 1997-12-30 26-28
Mike Droese 1996-7-1 27
Dennis Knight 1996-7-8, 1996-10-21, 1996-12-2, 1997-1-27, 1997-8-11 27-28
Mike Barton 1996-7-15 30
John Bradshaw Layfield 1996-7-29 29
Savio Vega 1996-8-26, 1996-11-18 30
Rick Bogner 1996-9-30, 1996-11-4, 1996-12-16, 1997-1-6 26
Owen Hart 1996-11-11, 1997-1-20 31
The Rock 1996-11-25, 1997-1-13, 1997-2-26, 1997-3-24, 1997-4-21, 1997-4-28, 1997-9-22, 1997-12-8, 1998-3-17, 1998-4-14, 1998-5-18, 1999-3-15 24-26
Cibernetico 1996-12-23 21
Mikey Whipwreck 1997-2-24 23
Mini Abismo Negro 1997-3-17 20
Adam Pearce 1997-3-25 18
Vernon White 1997-4-7 25
Chaz Warrington 1997-4-14, 1998-2-2 27-28
Tiger Ali Singh 1997-4-21 26
D Lo Brown 1997-5-26, 1997-6-30, 1998-3-16, 1998-5-11, 1998-6-2, 1998-6-30, 1998-7-14 to 1998-7-27, 1998-8-10, 1998-9-15, 1999-8-23, 1999-9-28 24-26
Rob Van Dam 1997-6-9 26
Taka Michinoku 1997-7-7 to 1997-7-14, 1997-8-4, 1997-9-9, 1997-10-20, 1997-12-9, 1997-12-29, 1998-1-19, 1998-2-17 to 1998-3-2, 1998-5-19, 1998-7-13, 1998-7-28, 1998-8-11 to 1998-8-24 23-24
Brian Christopher 1997-7-21, 1997-8-18 25
Ace Darling 1997-7-28 22
Tzuki 1997-9-8 23
Espectrito Ii 1997-10-7, 1997-11-11 22
Mr Aguila 1997-11-3, 1997-11-25, 1998-2-9 to 1998-2-16, 1998-3-3, 1998-3-30, 1998-4-13, 1998-6-1 19-20
Devon Storm 1997-11-10 23
Flash Flanagan 1997-11-24 23
Mark Henry 1998-1-26, 1998-4-27 26
H C Loc 1998-3-31 23
Chyna 1998-4-28 25
Edge 1998-6-16, 1998-9-28, 1998-11-3 to 1998-11-16, 1998-11-30 to 1998-12-14, 1998-12-28, 1999-2-16, 1999-3-30, 1999-6-7, 1999-6-28 24-25
Sean Morley 1998-6-29 27
Suicide Kid 1998-9-14 20
E C Negro 1998-9-29 18
Shaggy 2 Dope 1998-10-20 24
Christian 1998-11-2, 1998-11-17, 1999-1-26, 1999-4-13, 1999-5-31, 1999-7-26, 2000-2-7 24-26
Test 1998-12-15, 1998-12-29 to 1999-1-25, 1999-2-8 to 1999-2-15, 1999-3-2, 1999-3-22 to 1999-3-29, 1999-4-12, 1999-4-26 to 1999-5-10, 1999-6-14 to 1999-6-21, 1999-7-27 to 1999-8-16, 1999-9-13, 1999-10-18 to 1999-10-25, 1999-11-8 to 1999-11-15, 1999-11-29, 2000-4-3, 2000-8-7, 2000-8-28 to 2000-9-4 23-25
Frankie Kazarian 2000-2-14 22
Trish Stratus 2000-9-18, 2000-10-23 23
Nora Greenwald 2000-11-20 to 2000-11-27, 2001-2-26, 2001-3-26 23
Nitro
Sadly my project doesn't translate liger age to human age well and it shows JTL as being 30 instead of immortal.
Wrestler Stretches Ages
Jushin Thunder Liger 1995-9-4 30
Alex Wright 1995-9-11, 1995-9-25, 1996-1-8, 1996-2-19, 1996-3-11, 1996-5-27, 1996-6-24, 1996-7-22, 1996-8-5, 1996-9-2, 1997-1-6, 1997-1-20, 1997-2-3, 1997-3-17, 1997-4-7, 1997-5-5, 1997-6-2, 1997-6-23, 1997-7-14, 1997-7-28 to 1997-8-4, 1997-8-25 to 1997-9-1, 1997-10-6, 1997-11-10 to 1997-11-24, 1998-6-1, 1998-6-22, 1998-7-20, 1998-8-17, 1998-9-14, 1998-10-12 to 1998-11-2, 1998-12-21 20-23
Buff Bagwell 1995-9-18, 1995-10-2, 1995-10-30, 1996-1-15, 1996-2-5, 1996-11-4 25-26
Sabu 1995-10-9 30
Chris Benoit 1995-10-16, 1995-11-13 28
Manabu Nakanishi 1995-10-23 28
The Big Show 1995-11-6, 1995-12-4, 1995-12-18, 1996-1-29, 1996-3-25 to 1996-5-20, 1996-6-3, 1996-7-29, 1996-8-19 23-24
Eddie Guerrero 1995-11-20 28
Cutie Suzuki 1995-11-27 26
Glenn Gilberti 1995-12-11, 1995-12-25, 1999-1-25 27-30
William Regal 1996-1-1 27
Booker T 1996-1-22 30
Devon Storm 1996-2-12, 2000-5-1 21-26
The Renegade 1996-2-26 30
Johnny Grunge 1996-3-18 29
Billy Kidman 1996-6-10, 1996-7-15, 1996-12-2, 1997-1-13, 1998-2-16, 1998-3-9, 1998-5-4, 1998-11-30, 1998-12-14, 1999-3-1, 1999-3-29 to 1999-4-5, 1999-7-19, 2000-5-29 22-26
Rey Mysterio 1996-6-17, 1996-7-8, 1996-8-12, 1996-9-16, 1996-11-11, 1996-11-25, 1996-12-16 to 1996-12-23, 1997-2-24, 1997-3-10, 1997-4-14 to 1997-4-21, 1997-6-16, 1997-9-8 to 1997-9-29, 1997-10-13, 1997-11-3, 1997-12-1, 1998-7-13, 1998-8-10, 1998-11-23, 1998-12-7, 1999-1-11, 1999-2-22, 1999-3-15, 1999-4-12, 1999-4-26, 1999-6-14, 1999-9-27 to 1999-10-11 21-24
Joe Gomez 1996-7-1 23
Juventud Guerrera 1996-8-26, 1996-9-9, 1996-9-23 to 1996-9-30, 1996-10-28, 1996-11-18, 1997-3-3, 1997-3-24, 1997-4-28, 1997-5-12, 1997-6-9, 1997-6-28 to 1997-7-7, 1997-10-20, 1997-12-15 to 1997-12-22, 1998-1-5 to 1998-2-9, 1998-3-2, 1998-3-16, 1998-3-30, 1998-4-20, 1998-5-4, 1998-5-18 to 1998-5-25, 1998-6-8, 1998-8-3, 1998-8-31 to 1998-9-7, 1998-10-5, 1998-11-9 to 1998-11-16, 1999-1-4, 1999-3-8, 1999-3-22, 1999-6-21, 1999-8-23, 1999-9-20, 1999-11-15, 1999-11-29 21-25
Kenny Kaos 1996-10-7 26
Bill Demott 1996-10-14 29
Chris Jericho 1996-10-21, 1996-12-9, 1997-12-29, 1998-4-27 25-27
Octagoncito 1996-12-30 22
Ace Darling 1997-1-27, 1997-2-10 21
Johnny Swinger 1997-2-17, 1997-5-26, 1997-12-8, 1998-5-11, 1998-7-6, 1999-9-6 21-24
Meiko Satomura 1997-3-31 17
Sean Waltman 1997-5-19, 1997-8-11 24-25
Tsubasa 1997-7-22 24
Stevie Richards 1997-8-18 25
Andy Anderson 1997-10-27 22
Kaz Hayashi 1998-2-23, 1998-3-23, 1998-8-24 25
Cima 1998-4-6, 1998-6-29, 1998-12-28 20-21
Lenny Lane 1998-4-13 27
Scott Vick 1998-6-15, 1998-7-27 25
Nick Dinsmore 1998-9-21 to 1998-9-28 22
David Flair 1999-1-18, 1999-5-3 to 1999-5-31, 1999-6-28 to 1999-7-12, 1999-7-26, 1999-8-9, 1999-10-18 to 1999-10-25, 1999-12-13, 1999-12-27 to 2000-1-17, 2000-1-31 to 2000-2-7, 2000-3-6, 2000-10-7 to 2000-10-13, 2000-10-30 19-21
X Fly 1999-2-1 21
Blitzkrieg 1999-2-8 to 1999-2-15, 1999-4-19 23
Shark Boy 1999-6-7 24
Evan Karagias 1999-8-2 25
Lash Leroux 1999-8-16, 1999-8-30, 1999-11-1 to 1999-11-8, 1999-11-22, 2000-3-20, 2000-7-10 22-23
Shaggy 2 Dope 1999-9-13 24
Nora Greenwald 1999-12-6 22
The Maestro 1999-12-20 26
Shannon Moore 2000-1-24, 2000-2-14, 2000-2-28, 2000-6-26, 2000-8-28, 2000-12-4, 2000-12-18 to 2001-1-15, 2001-2-19 to 2001-2-26 20-21
Rellik 2000-2-21, 2000-5-8, 2001-1-22 22-23
Jimmy Yang 2000-3-13, 2000-3-27, 2000-6-19, 2000-7-3, 2000-7-17, 2000-8-7, 2000-9-25, 2000-10-23, 2000-11-6, 2000-11-20 to 2000-11-27, 2001-1-29 to 2001-2-12, 2001-3-12, 2001-3-26 18-19
Jeff Jarrett 2000-4-10 33
Shawn Stasiak 2000-4-17 29
Sharmell 2000-4-24 25
Daffney 2000-5-15 to 2000-5-22 24
Stacy Keibler 2000-6-5, 2000-7-24 to 2000-7-31 20
Reid Flair 2000-6-12 12
Elix Skipper 2000-8-14 to 2000-8-21, 2000-9-18, 2000-10-2, 2000-11-10, 2001-3-5 22-23
Marco Corleone 2000-9-4, 2000-12-11 23
Chameleon 2000-9-11 24
Hurricane Helms 2001-3-19 26
Juventud Guerrera and Rey Misterio dominated the category. At ages 21 to 25, they were amongst the youngest wrestlers in the whole industry. As runner-ups we have Jimmy Yang and David Flair, showing off WCW's two best qualities: using young guys to carry the in-ring product quality and nepotism.
WWF PPVs
Wrestler Stretches Ages
Carl Ouellet 1995-9-24 27
Sean Waltman 1995-10-22, 1995-12-17, 1996-2-18, 1998-11-15 23-26
Chaparrita Asari 1995-11-19 22
Justin Credible 1996-1-21, 1996-11-17 22-23
Triple H 1996-3-31, 1996-5-26, 1996-10-20, 1997-6-8, 1997-8-3 26-28
Chris Candido 1996-4-28, 1996-7-21 to 1996-8-18 24
Dustin Rhodes 1996-5-28 27
Dennis Knight 1996-6-23 27
Mark Henry 1996-9-22 25
The Rock 1996-12-15, 1997-2-16 to 1997-5-11 24
Cibernetico 1997-1-19 21
Taka Michinoku 1997-7-6, 1997-12-7, 1998-2-15, 1998-5-31 to 1998-6-28, 1998-8-30 23-24
Tzuki 1997-9-7 23
Tiger Ali Singh 1997-9-20 26
Espectrito Ii 1997-10-5, 1998-1-18 22
D Lo Brown 1997-11-9, 1998-4-26, 1998-7-26 25
Mr Aguila 1998-3-29 20
Edge 1998-9-27, 1998-12-6 24-25
Christian 1998-10-18, 1998-12-13, 1999-4-25 to 1999-5-16, 1999-9-26 to 1999-10-2 24-25
Test 1999-1-24, 1999-3-28, 1999-5-23 23-24
The Blue Meanie 1999-2-14 25
Jeff Hardy 1999-6-27 to 1999-8-22, 1999-10-17 to 2000-5-6, 2000-6-25 to 2000-7-23, 2000-9-24 to 2000-10-22, 2000-12-2 to 2001-1-21 21-23
Scott Taylor 2000-5-21 26
Trish Stratus 2000-8-27 23
Nora Greenwald 2000-11-19 23
Stephanie McMahon 2001-2-25 24
WCW PPVs
Wrestler Stretches Ages
The Renegade 1995-9-17 29
The Big Show 1995-10-29, 1996-2-11 to 1996-3-24 23-24
Alex Wright 1995-11-26 to 1995-12-27, 1996-5-19, 1997-9-14, 1997-11-23, 1998-8-8 to 1998-9-13, 1998-11-22 20-23
Rey Mysterio 1996-6-16 to 1996-8-10, 1996-10-27 to 1996-12-29, 1997-3-16 to 1997-5-18, 1997-8-9, 1997-10-26, 1999-6-13, 1999-8-14 to 1999-9-12 21-24
Juventud Guerrera 1996-9-15, 1997-2-23, 1997-7-13, 1998-1-24, 1998-2-22 to 1998-4-2, 1998-6-14 to 1998-7-12, 1998-10-25 21-23
Sean Waltman 1997-1-25 24
Nicho El Millonario 1997-6-15, 1998-4-19 26
Buff Bagwell 1997-12-28 27
Chris Jericho 1998-1-31 27
Billy Kidman 1998-5-2, 1998-12-27, 1999-2-21 to 1999-3-14, 2000-5-7 23-26
Johnny Swinger 1998-5-17 22
David Flair 1999-1-17, 1999-7-11, 1999-11-21 to 2000-1-16, 2000-6-11, 2000-10-29 19-21
Blitzkrieg 1999-4-11 23
Gorgeous George 1999-5-9 23
Lash Leroux 1999-10-24 22
Shannon Moore 2000-2-20 to 2000-4-16, 2000-9-17 20-21
Stacy Keibler 2000-7-9 20
Jimmy Yang 2000-8-13, 2000-11-26 to 2001-2-18 19
Elix Skipper 2000-11-16, 2001-3-18 22-23
If you want to see all above in a form of a clunky chart, be my guest:

Quality of wrestling

Meltzer ratings

This chart presents the average Meltzer rating of a show provided he rated more than one match. At this point I did check whether I was calculating it correctly.
We can see that WWF were rather consistent with the quality of their in-ring product – the average is a bit over two stars, with some gems and some stinkers sprinkled in between. As for WCW, they’re a rollercoaster ride, jumping from almost four stars to almost two in successive events. However, as it stands, according to Big Daddy Meltzer they more often than not had a better in-ring product than their competition. I would credit this to cruiserweights being given in-ring freedom although this is just a wild hypothesis.
Speaking of hypothesizes, what about /SquaredCircle ‘s favorite one: that younger guys wrestle better matches than old-timers. It feels instinctively true in modern era but was this the case during the Wars?
This chart is just like nWo – looked promising at the beginning and utterly disappointing in the end. From ages 21 to 40 we can see a trendline that fits the assumption – the older you get, the lower Dave rates your matches and we can fit a nice trendline into this part. However, it is ruined by outliers right after that. If you’re curious about them, the 59-year-old guy scoring a -3 stars match is Pat Patterson in his title defense against Gerald Brisco at King of the Ring ’00. The Fabulous Moolah and Mae Young were both 76 when they wrestled the 8-person tag at Survivor Series ’99 rated -1.5 stars.

Jumping the ship

Finally, the tiniest chart. 1997 was the best year for WWF when it came to scooping WCW talent – they got 14 of them. However, until 1999 included WCW was consistently gaining more and more WWF guys: until the whole company and their funds burned down, of course. Following is the log of all jumps I managed to track:
From -> To Wrestler Year
WWF -> WCW Alundra Blayze 1996
WCW -> WWF Marc Mero 1996
WWF -> WCW Kevin Nash 1996
WWF -> WCW Scott Hall 1996
WWF -> WCW Carl Ouellet 1996
WWF -> WCW Sean Waltman 1996
WWF -> WCW Jeff Jarrett 1996
WWF -> WCW Roddy Piper 1996
WWF -> WCW Brian Walsh 1997
WWF -> WCW Johnny Swinger 1997
WCW -> WWF Road Warrior Animal 1997
WCW -> WWF Road Warrior Hawk 1997
WCW -> WWF Miguel Perez Jr 1997
WCW -> WWF Brian Pillman 1997
WWF -> WCW Hector Garza 1997
WCW -> WWF Tommy Rogers 1997
WCW -> WWF Bobby Fulton 1997
WCW -> WWF Sabu 1997
WCW -> WWF Brian Walsh 1997
WCW -> WWF Devon Storm 1997
WCW -> WWF Ace Darling 1997
WWF -> WCW Stevie Richards 1997
WWF -> WCW Unknown Male Wrestler 1997
WCW -> WWF Piratita Morgan 1997
WCW -> WWF Mascarita Sagrada Original 1997
WWF -> WCW Louie Spicolli 1997
WCW -> WWF Octagoncito 1997
WCW -> WWF Jeff Jarrett 1997
WWF -> WCW Bret Hart 1997
WCW -> WWF Ricky Morton 1998
WCW -> WWF Robert Gibson 1998
WWF -> WCW Marty Jannetty 1998
WWF -> WCW Jim Neidhart 1998
WCW -> WWF Jacques Rougeau Jr 1998
WCW -> WWF Carl Ouellet 1998
WWF -> WCW Davey Boy Smith 1998
WWF -> WCW Barry Horowitz 1998
WWF -> WCW Brian Adams 1998
WCW -> WWF Luna Vachon 1998
WWF -> WCW Erik Watts 1998
WWF -> WCW Scott Putski 1998
WCW -> WWF John Tenta 1998
WCW -> WWF Sean Waltman 1998
WCW -> WWF William Regal 1998
WCW -> WWF Jacqueline Moore 1998
WWF -> WCW The Ultimate Warrior 1998
WCW -> WWF Big Boss Man 1998
WWF -> WCW Barry Windham 1998
WWF -> WCW Bam Bam Bigelow 1998
WWF -> WCW X Fly 1999
WCW -> WWF Johnny Grunge 1999
WCW -> WWF Ted Petty 1999
WCW -> WWF The Big Show 1999
WWF -> WCW Mikey Whipwreck 1999
WWF -> WCW Sid 1999
WWF -> WCW William Regal 1999
WWF -> WCW Johnny Grunge 1999
WWF -> WCW Ted Petty 1999
WWF -> WCW John Tenta 1999
WWF -> WCW Shane Douglas 1999
WWF -> WCW Shaggy 2 Dope 1999
WWF -> WCW Violent J 1999
WCW -> WWF Chris Jericho 1999
WCW -> WWF Stevie Richards 1999
WCW -> WWF Davey Boy Smith 1999
WWF -> WCW Jeff Jarrett 1999
WWF -> WCW Ron Harris 1999
WWF -> WCW Don Harris 1999
WWF -> WCW Steve Williams 1999
WWF -> WCW Rhonda Singh 1999
WWF -> WCW Dustin Rhodes 1999
WWF -> WCW Jamie Dundee 1999
WWF -> WCW Kelly Wolfe 1999
WWF -> WCW Devon Storm 1999
WWF -> WCW Terry Funk 2000
WWF -> WCW George Steele 2000
WWF -> WCW Jimmy Snuka 2000
WWF -> WCW Tony Norris 2000
WCW -> WWF Dean Malenko 2000
WCW -> WWF Eddie Guerrero 2000
WCW -> WWF Perry Saturn 2000
WCW -> WWF Chris Benoit 2000
WWF -> WCW Chris Candido 2000
WWF -> WCW Mike Modest 2000
WWF -> WCW Shawn Stasiak 2000
WWF -> WCW Sunny 2000
WWF -> WCW Carl Ouellet 2000
WCW -> WWF Raven 2000
WCW -> WWF William Regal 2000
WCW -> WWF Nora Greenwald 2000
WCW -> WWF Lenny Lane 2000
WWF -> WCW Road Warrior Animal 2001
WCW -> WWF Haku 2001

Conclusions

I hope I didn't screw up somewhere, as always.
When it came to age, WWF more frequently featured younger wrestlers than WCW. It feels like WCW was plagued by dinosaurs and to an extent they were, however, both companies were reasonably close - two-year average difference isn't that much. Quality of in-ring product was all over the place but I think we can say the Wars and the Attitude Era weren't really about that: they were about intriguing, realistic storylines and shock value. It is, in my opinion, the best era of pro wrestling history - because I'm intrigued by storytelling and drama. The current era of pro wrestling is - again, in my opinion - the best when it comes to in-ring product. However, the extent of storylines is often "hey let's fight", which doesn't do much when it comes to intriguing me. As for jumping the ship, we can clearly see that WCW had a lot of Turner money to spare up until they were in deep trouble. I cannot really blame wrestlers chasing the cheques - it can be passion, but often it is just a job.
submitted by pawloka to SquaredCircle [link] [comments]


2019.06.14 18:46 MsBluffy What's Going on in Columbia? June 14-19

Content Courtesy of Columbia CVB

ON STAGE

Hairspray – June 13-16, 20-23 and 27-30. Thursday-Saturday shows start at 7:30 p.m. Sunday shows start at 2 p.m. at the Columbia Entertainment Company. Tracy Turnblad, a teenager with all the right moves, is obsessed with the Corny Collins Show. Every day after school, she and her best friend Penny run home to watch the show and drool over the hot Link Larkin, much to Tracy’s mother Edna’s dismay. After one of the stars of the show leaves, Corny Collins holds auditions to see who will be the next teen regular. With the help of her friend Seaweed, Tracy is chosen, angering evil dance queen Amber Von Tussle and her mother Velma. Tracy then decides that it’s not fair that black kids can only dance on the show once a month (on “Negro Day”), and with the help of Seaweed, Link, Penny, Motormouth Maybelle, her father, and Edna, she’s going to integrate the show…..without denting her ‘do.
Romeo and Juliet – June 13-18 from 8 – 11 p.m. at the Maplewood Barn Community Theatre. William Shakespeare’s epic story of two star crossed lovers. Set in the 1920s, this version of the Shakespearean classic weaves together the tragic fates of two people from rival families. Romeo and Juliet is a forbidden romance that includes sword fights and a masquerade.
Resident Opera Artists “Mostly Mozart” Recital – June 17 at 7 p.m. at Broadway Christian Church. A Hot Summer Nights Chamber Series event, vocalists from the Missouri Symphony’s Resident Opera Artists will present a program of ‘Mostly Mozart,’ accompanied by pianist Mun-Tzung Wong and small ensembles from the MSO. While enjoying the superb acoustics of the Broadway Christian Church, the audience has a unique opportunity to get close to the singers and meet with them after the concert.

SPECIAL EVENTS

Movies in the Park: Ferdinand- June 14 at 8:45 p.m. at Cosmo Park. Join the fun on the second Friday of the month, May through September. Free courtesy of Missouri Care. Bring a blanket or lawn chair and enjoy a movie on the large, inflatable screen under the stars. Concessions and food trucks available: Kona Ice and Eats & Treats. After escaping from a training camp in rural Spain, a young bull named Ferdinand is adopted by a girl who lives on a peaceful farm. His new life comes crashing down when authorities come to return him to his captors. With help from a wisecracking goat and three hedgehogs, Ferdinand must find a way to escape again before he’s forced to fight a famous bullfighter who never loses.
Columbia Farmers Market – June 15from 8 a.m. – 12 p.m. at Parkade Plaza. Fresh vegetables and fruit, meat, farm-fresh eggs, cheeses, honey, cut flowers, plants, artisan items & more. As a producer-only market, everything sold here is offered by farmers and artisans who help sustain our region. SNAP (food stamps) are accepted at all markets. Live music, gardening workshops and children’s activities are featured at every market! Join us in rain or shine! Columbiafarmersmarket.org

GALLERIES

The June Exhibit – June 4 through June 29 at the Sager Braudis Gallery. The new exhibit in the Main Gallery features a return to a favorite subject matter for Joel Sager; the current, abstract work of the renowned Stephen Gammell; intriguing figural sculpture by Richard W. James; lively Ancestor and Tropical drawings by Simon Tatum; and 3-dimensional wall-installation work by Dean Dablow.

SPORTS

Nada

MUSIC

THURSDAY The Record Company: A Summerfest Concert Event at Rose Park @ 6 p.m.
FRIDAY Big Bam Finale at Rose Park @ 5 p.m.
SATURDAY Clear 99 Country at Rose Park @ 6 p.m.
Jane Doe Revue: Female Rock Orchestra at The Blue Note @ 7:30 p.m.
SUNDAY Larkin Poe at Rose Park @ 5 p.m.
TUESDAY I Don’t Know How But They Found Me at Rose Music Hall at Rose Music Hall @ 6:30 p.m.
WEDNESDAY Chain Station at Rose Music Hall @ 7:30 p.m.

MOVIE GUIDE

ALADDIN - Aladdin embarks on a magical adventure after finding a lamp that releases a wisecracking genie. AVENGERS: ENDGAME - Adrift in space with no food or water, Tony Stark sends a message to Pepper Potts as his oxygen supply starts to dwindle. Meanwhile, the remaining Avengers -- Thor, Black Widow, Captain America and Bruce Banner -- must figure out a way to bring back their vanquished allies for an epic showdown with Thanos -- the evil demigod who decimated the planet and the universe.
DARK PHOENIX - This is the story of one of the X-Men's most beloved characters, Jean Grey, as she evolves into the iconic Dark Phoenix. During a life-threatening rescue mission in space, Jean is hit by a cosmic force that transforms her into one of the most powerful mutants of all. Wrestling with this increasingly unstable power as well as her own personal demons, Jean spirals out of control, tearing the X-Men family apart and threatening to destroy the very fabric of our planet. The film is the most intense and emotional X-Men movie ever made. It is the culmination of 20 years of X-Men movies, as the family of mutants that we've come to know and love must face their most devastating enemy yet -- one of their own.
GODZILLA: KING OF THE MONSTERS – The new story follows the heroic efforts of the crypto-zoological agency Monarch as its members face off against a battery of god-sized monsters, including the mighty Godzilla, who collides with Mothra, Rodan, and his ultimate nemesis, the threeheaded King Ghidorah. When these ancient super-species—thought to be mere myths—rise again, they all vie for supremacy, leaving humanity’s very existence hanging in the balance.
JOHN WICK: CHAPTER 3: PARABELLUM - Super-Assassin John Wick (Keanu Reeves) is on the run after killing a member of the international assassin’s guild, and with a $14 million price tag on his head, he is the target of hit men and women everywhere.
LATE NIGHT – A late-night talk show host's world is turned upside down when she hires her first and only female staff writer. Originally intended to smooth over diversity concerns, her decision brings about unexpectedly hilarious consequences as the two women who are separated by culture and generation become united by their love of a biting punchline.
MA – A lonely middle-aged woman befriends some teenagers and decides to let them party in the basement of her home. But there are some house rules: One of the kids has to stay sober, don't curse, and never go upstairs. They must also refer to her as Ma. But as Ma's hospitality starts to curdle into obsession, what began as a teenage dream turns into a terrorizing nightmare, and Ma's place goes from the best place in town to the worst place on Earth.
MEN IN BLACK: INTERNATIONAL – The Men in Black have always protected the Earth from the scum of the universe. Is this new adventure, they tackled the biggest, most global threat to date: a mole in the Men in Black organization.
ROCKETMAN – The epic musical story of Elton John, his breakthrough years and his transformation from shy piano prodigy to international superstar. Set to his most beloved songs, witness how a smalltown boy became one of the most iconic figures in pop history. SHAFT – John Shaft Jr. may be an FBI cyber security expert, but to uncover the truth behind his best friend's untimely death, he needs an education that only his dad can provide. Absent throughout his childhood, the legendary John Shaft agrees to help his son navigate the heroin-infested underbelly of Harlem, N.Y. Besides, the locked and loaded Shaft has his own score to settle -- both professional and personal.
THE SECRET LIFE OF PETS 2 – Max the terrier must cope with some major life changes when his owner gets married and has a baby. When the family takes a trip to the countryside, nervous Max has numerous run-ins with canine-intolerant cows, hostile foxes and a scary turkey. Luckily for Max, he soon catches a break when he meets Rooster, a gruff farm dog who tries to cure the lovable pooch of his neuroses.

CHECK EACH THEATER FOR SHOWTIMES
REGAL STADIUM 14 THEATER – 2800 Goodwin Pointe Drive 844-462-7342
GOODRICH FORUM 8 – 1209 Forum Katy Parkway 573-445-7469
RAGTAG CINEMA – 10 Hitt Street 573-443-4359
submitted by MsBluffy to columbiamo [link] [comments]


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