Uttal wrote a new book every 18-24 months after his second retirement. A recurring topic was the relation of brain, mind and behavior; a pervasive tone was that of an astute critic. He was disturbed by the low replicability of cognitive research, and in particular cognitive neuroscience. It brings me back to the feeling of the divine mother putting the human race on a timeout,” reflects Uttal. “It’s a huge event. This will be historically relevant and remembered forever and ever as being a huge transformational moment for the human race.” Inner Harmony Uttalslexikon: Lär dig hur man uttalar human på engelska, svenska, interlingua, tyska, afrikaans, danska, nordsamiska, bokmål med infött uttal. Engslsk översättning av human Uttal's new bookThe New Phrenology is an iconoclastic attack on even the possibility of the localization of cognitive function in the brain. Criticizing attempts from Lashley to today, Uttal is particularly scathing about current studies of imaging the human brain. Charles Gross. Department of Psychology, Princeton University In this book, William Uttal provides a critical review of cognitive neuroscience, focusing on a specific question: What do the brain-imaging techniques developed in the last two decades or so ... A retired Professor of Counseling Psychology and Human Development and Family Studies, Lynet Uttal grew up in many places (Ann Arbor, Michigan; Oahu, Hawaii, Kyoto, Japan; Perth, Western Australia), and as an adult lived in Santa Cruz, Berkeley, and Oakland, California; Memphis, Tennessee, Phoenix, Arizona before arriving in Madison, Wisconsin. . These multiple border crossings plus her ...
Greetings dear citizens of Reddit,
everything took longer than expected, but we still want to provide you with the information we have gathered. First we give you a tl;dr version of the results. Then we want to run you quickly through the theory behind our study, then we tell you a little about the sample size we were able to gather (this is you guys). Then we give you a long run through the results including tons of tables and statistical stuff for the people that want to know more than our tl;dr version. Feel free to ask questions, we try to answer them.
- TL;DR Results
- These results only show correlations, not coherence’s, meaning that we can’t say that playing videogames are the major factor that lead to these results. It is also possible, that people that show these traits are more likely to play video games.
- Significance is not a sign of a huge effect, it just states that the result is most likely no coincidence. The effect power for all found results were small unless stated otherwise.
- In the tl;dr section all effects are significant
We didn’t find any effects of skill to affect the results in any kind. I personally believe that we might have been able to find results there if we had tested for reaction time in a real-life location, but that’s just a personal opinion.
However we did find effects in risk taking, risk perception and the expected benefits of risk taking. All Players (Dota 2; Overwatch; Hearthstone) had some similarities:
Risk Domain: Gambling
All Players do perceive the risk of gambling higher than non players. But they match non-players in Risk Taking and the expected benefits of gambling. No one seems to like RNGjesus
All Players showed a lower score in extraversion than non-players.
Noteworthy: No moderation effects were achieved by temperament Dota2:
Risk Domain: Financial Investment
Dota 2 Players are more likely to take risks in this domain, than non-players. They perceive the risk of financial investment as lower and expect more benefits from it than non players. Everyone go Midas!
Risk Domain: Health / Safety
Non-Players perceive health/saftey related risks as more threatening than Dota2-Players. But they match Dota2 Players in Risk Taking and the expected benefits. Overwatch:
Risk Domain: Financial Investment
Overwatch Players are more likely to take risks in this domain, than non-players. They also expect more benefits from it than non players. But they match Non-Players in the perceived risk of financial investments. Hearthstone:
Risk Domain: Financial Investment
Hearthstone Players are more likely to take risks in this domain, than non-players. They perceive the risk of financial investment as lower and expect more benefits from it than non players.
Risk Domain: Health / Safety
Non-Players perceive health/saftey related risks as more threatening than Hearthstone Players. But they match Hearthstone Players in Risk Taking and the expected benefits.
Risk Domain: Recreational
Non-Players are expecting more benefits from recreational risks than Hearthstone Players. But they match Hearthstone Players in Risk Taking and Risk Perception.
Risk Domain: Social
Hearthstone Players would significantly more likely take risks in this domain than non-players. They perceive the risk as lower.
To provide a good and light start i'd like to begin with the basics, the structure of our theory.
Basically our theory consists out of two main parts. The first part is about risk, how we perceive risk and how we behave in risky situations. The second part is about gaming and video games and sums up some of the effects found in the last 20 years. Risk 1.(Short digression) Theory of learning
For our research it was pretty important to know how learning works, meaning, how certain skills that are trained in specific situations (like playing a video game), are transfered into everyday situations. Grossman & Salas (2011) found some interpersonal variables that, depending on their shaping, either favor or hinder a transfer of skills from one situation to another. Those variables are cognitive abilities, self-efficacy, motivation and expected outcome of learning something. There are also situational variables like how similar are the surroundings of your "place of learning" and your "place of used skills" (Perkins & Salomon 1992). The more similar the easier the transfer of skills. Those variables are important because a lot of video games inherently promote the motivation to play them, and they do this by giving you a feeling of self-efficacy. Given the fact that video games and virtual reality will get more and more realistic the coming years there's also a good chance that the factor "similar surroundings" will play a geater role in future skill-transfer through video games or trainings. 2.Analytical System vs Experiental System
Psychological research showed that there are basically two ways we assess risk. The first way is the analytical one where we try to calculate any risk factor given by a certain situation. This is, as you can imagine, a very slow process and in everyday situations we often don't have the time to do such a complex evaluation. For those everyday situations we mostly use the experiental way. This way of assessing a risk is based on personal experience and subjective risk values and is therefore way faster but also a lot more error-prone (Slovic, Finucane, Peters, & MacGregor, 2004). 3.Prospect Theory
Another important factor for wether a person will take a certain risk or not is the expected benefit or loss of engaging in this certain risk. Kahneman and Tversky (1979) adressed this factor in their prospect theory. The base of this theory is an experiment in which people had varied probabilities of (fictively) winning or losing money. From observing how people engage or dont engage in financial risks they could form some rule of thumbs to describe this behaviour. First, if there is a safe probability to win money amongst more risky options, people tend to go for the safe pick. Second, if people have to choose from different probabilities of losing money (ranging from high risk-low loss to low risk-high loss) people tend to go for the low risk option, even if that means they would lose a lot more money if they are unlucky. 4.Risk Domains
Measuring risk perception and behaviour is pretty difficult as psychologists are still in a debate about the structure of those two constructs. Until the late nineties risk behaviour was measured on a onedimensional scale ranging from "risk averse person" to "risk taker person". It were Blais & Weber (2002, 2006) who postulated that risk should be measured on a more-dimensional scale and so they conducted the five so-called life domains. They measured risk perception, risk behaviour and expected benefit of engaging in certain risky activities. Those activities were related to the postulated life domains: Health and safety risks, social risks, ethical risks, recreational risks, and financial risks (split into financial gambling and financial investment). The results showed, that people show significantly different risk behaviour between those five scales. For example a person can be really risk-taking in terms of recreational risks and do extreme sports but at the same time be very risk averse in terms of financial investments. In our research we used the test "DOSPERT" which Blais and Weber (2002) created to measure the risk behaviour, risk perception and expected benefit of people who either play our chosen video games or dont play video games at all. With the five different scales we could take a more fine-grained look if there are specific scales on which video games may have a stronger effect. 5.Temperament
There is evidence that people who score high on certain personality traits like extraversion or neurotizism also show different risk behavior than people who score average on those traits (Lauriola & Weller, in press). To see if personality traits have a moderating effect on the risk behaviour of our population we put a personality test into our online survey.
Gaming 1.Transfer of skills through games
A meta-analysis conducted by Uttal et al (2013) came to the conclusion, that playing shooter games enhances the spatial skills of the gamer. Even just playing over short periods of time leads to stable and constant effects regarding this observation. Spatial skills are a good predictor for later success in fields like science or engineering (Lubinski, 2010). A FMRI-Study done by Bavelier, Achtman, Mani & Föcker (2012) could find some hints that playing shooter games may enhances attentional control, a skill needed to fastly sort out important from less important information in new situations. Russoniello et al (2009) found that playing puzzle games like bejeweled leads to a better mood and to relief from anxious emotional states. Dye, Green and Bavelier (2009) also found, that playing shooter or simulation games decreases the players reaction time. Playing simulation games lead to an increase of 6% in reaction speed in an speeded choice task whereas shooter games lead to an 13% increase.
We know that playing certain games leads to enhancement in related cognitive abilities and that those skills are transferable into everyday life.We also know that people often use their experience in their risk judgement process. This lead to our final scientific Questions: Does it have an impact on a gamers risk judgement to play games like Hearthstone, Overwatch or Dota 2 where they are constantly confronted with risky situations and not enough time to calculate through the probabilities?
We had a sample size of 1286 valid datasets. The adjusted sample size consisted of 218 Hearthstone Players, 447 Overwatch Players, 347 Dota 2 Players and 117 Non-Gamers. Our youngest participants were 18 (due to our pledge to the ethics commitee) and our oldest participant was 73. The mean was 24.74 Years with a Standard Derivation of 6.35 Years. 19.44% of the sample size were female, 79.63% were male, and 0.93% fell into the other category. The biggest contributers (by country) to our survey were the USA with 33.44% of the sample size, followed by Germany with 20.68% of the sample size. Overall People from 74 Countries contributed to our survey. Reddit did also contribute the biggest amount of people with 58.71% of the sample size, followed by Surveycircle with 6.38%.
Problematic Factors regarding the sample size:
The Non-Gamer Group consisted of 78.63% Females and 21.37% Males, which nearly exclusively were located in german-speaking countries.
The Hearthstone Group consisted of 8.72% Females and 89.91% Males and 1,38% Others.
The Overwatch Group consisted of 15.21% Females and 83% Males and 1.8% Others.
The Dota 2 Group consisted of 2.88% Females and 96.83% Males and 0.29% Others.
The Gamers Groups always consisted from People all over the Planet. These factors can result in bias, which we can’t adjust. But as we have found different results for the games we believe that the results at least are able to show a trend.
Sadly the League of Legends subreddit didn’t want to participate in our survey, resulting in having not enough persons to take the players into account.
Comments on the Tables are found in the comments of the google table. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1g2_0e9e2fIZbmdPYf76qqT8jiCmWpcWfqxxhqOb8DT0/edit?usp=sharing
As a disclaimer: These results only show correlations, not coherence’s, meaning that we can’t say that playing videogames are the major factor that lead to these results. It is also possible, that people that show these traits are more likely to play video games.
We didn’t find any effects of skill or temperament to affect the results in any kind. I personally believe that we might have been able to find results there if we had tested for reaction time in a real-life location, but that’s just a personal opinion. We also don’t know if the found effects are only temporary. It’s not necessarily a bad thing to find small or no effects, because it only proves that we tend to overestimate the influence that video games have on us. None of the results reached an effect power of d = 0.5 or more, at which an effect is considered a mediocre effect. Also we can’t judge if the outcome can be considered a positive or negative effect for the human beeings, because we didn’t measure that.
Bavelier, D., Achtman, R. L., Mani, M., & Föcker, J. (2012). Neural bases of selective attention in action video game players. Vision research
Blais, A. R., & Weber, E. U. (2006). A domain-specific risk-taking (DOSPERT) scale for adult populations.
Dye, M. W., Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2009). Increasing speed of processing with action video games. Current directions in psychological science
Grossman, R., & Salas, E. (2011). The transfer of training: what really matters. International Journal of Training and Development
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the econometric society,
Lubinski, D. (2010). Spatial ability and STEM: A sleeping giant for talent identification and development. Personality and Individual Differences
Perkins, D. N., & Salomon, G. (1992). Transfer of learning. International encyclopedia of education
Russoniello, C. V., O’Brien, K., & Parks, J. M. (2009). The effectiveness of casual video games in improving mood and decreasing stress. Journal of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation
Slovic, P., Finucane, M. L., Peters, E., & MacGregor, D. G. (2004). Risk as analysis and risk as feelings: Some thoughts about affect, reason, risk, and rationality. Risk analysis
Uttal, D. H., Meadow, N. G., Tipton, E., Hand, L. L., Alden, A. R., Warren, C., & Newcombe, N. S. (2013). The malleability of spatial skills: A meta-analysis of training studies.
Hanuman (Sanskrit: हनुमान्, IAST: Hanumān, Burmese: ဟာနုမန်, pronounced [hànṵmàɴ], Indonesian: Hanoman, Javanese: Anoman, Lao ... Uttal – Betoning / Vuxnas lärande Karlskoga Degerfors (www.uttal.se) - Duration: 9:33. ... Introduction to Human Behavioral Biology - Duration: 57:15. Stanford Recommended for you. But then we take a deep breath, exhale, and remember our divine connection, as well as the human connection we all share. We’re being urged, with what seems to be good reason, to keep a physical ... Sfi Uttal: mjuka och hårda vokaler, olika bokstavskombinationer - Duration: ... Introduction to Human Behavioral Biology - Duration: 57:15. Stanford Recommended for you. 57:15. This video “Vertebral Column” is part of the Lecturio course “Abdominal Wall - Anatomy” WATCH the complete course on http://lectur.io/vertebralcolumn LEA... Ong Namo -I bow to the subtle divine wisdom Guru Dev Namo - I bow to the divine teacher within. 'Live in Concert' by Snatam Kaur available at http://www.spir... Original songs and full music videos will now all be uploaded to GATHER - to receive weekly mantras, medicine music, meditations and original songs please jo... This unique Hanuman Chalisa is a duet between Pt. Jasraj and Shankar Mahadevan. The Hanuman Chalisa is perhaps India's most loved prayer and is chanted daily... Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube.